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Roman Catholic Church by  Father Joseph B. Macheboeuf
"he was guilty of the scandals which had brought on his punishment"

The Sand Creek Massacre by  Joseph Cramer

"told the Indians that he did not have it in his power to issue rations to them"

Conditions in China

"We had only salt and water to eat with the rice."

The Human Meaning of Migration

"I wish this paper would console you a little."

Experiencing Discrimination by  Do-Yun Yoon

"If we wanted to rent land..."

Land Loss in California by  Hutchings California Magazine

"The land owners had committed no offence..."

Homestead Act

"..be entitled to enter one quarter-section or a less quantity of unappropriated public lands.."

Pacific Railway Act

"...lay out...construct...and enjoy a continuous railroad and telegraph...from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean"

The Sand Creek Massacre by  George Bent

"The soldiers scalped the dead"

Sand Creek Massacre

"It is hard for me to believe white men any more."

Roman Catholic Church by  Archbishop Lamy

"we find ourselves rewarded for all this hardship"

Fort Laramie Treaty

"The tribes...relinquish all right to occupy the territory outside their reservations."

East and West: Completion of the Great Line Spanning the Continent

"the last blow to announce to the world by telegraph the completion of the Pacific Railroad"

On Women's Right to Vote by  Susan B. Anthony

"Are women persons?"

Bradwell v. Illinois

"I am not prepared to say that it is one of her fundamental rights and privileges to be admitted into every office and position."

Resistance in California by  Tiburcio Vásquez

"I intended to commence a different life"

Barring Female Immigration by  and

"An act supplementary to the acts in relation to immigration"

New Mexico Statehood by  Harper's Weekly

"there are objections to a Territorial government"

The Little Horn Massacre

"There had been forty-eight hours' fighting, with no word from Custer."

Report on the Battle of the Little Big Horn

"I could not see Custer...and at the same time the very earth seemed to grow Indians."

The Custer Massacre

"The fate of the brave and gallant Custer has deeply touched the public heart..."

Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce
(1877 to 1879)

"This promise the Nez Perce have never broken."

Chief Joseph by  Chief Joseph

"I will fight no more forever"

The Great Railroad Strike of 1877

"had not wronged the strikers in any way whatever"

A White Labor Leader Attacks Chinese Immigration

"they have turned upon us to sting us to death"

A Defense of Chinese Immigration

"it is our duty as first occupants in this land to instruct in intellectual and moral duties"

Another Defense of Chinese Immigration by  Joseph McDonnell

"We have certainly a right to protect"

Chief Joseph by  Chief Joseph

"I could not bear to see my wounded men and women suffer any longer"

The Struggle for Self-Determination by  Luther Standing Chief Bear

“How lonesome I felt for my father and mother!”

An Indian's Views of Indian Affairs.

“The white people have too many chiefs."

The Public Land Commission by  Public Land Commission

"no penalty for failure to present"

The Chinese Exclusion Treaty of 1880 and the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
(11/17/1880 to 05/06/1882)

"...the coming of Chinese laborers to the Untied States be, . . . suspended."

Testimony of Benjamin Singleton

"I commenced getting the emigration up in 1875...I believe I fetched out 7,432 people."

The Battle of the Little Bighorn

"Then all the Sioux became brave and charged the soldiers."

Reforming Indian Policy by  Helen Hunt Jackson

"United States government breaks promises now"

Indian Policy Reform
(12/ 06/1881)

"The Indian should receive the protection of the law."

The Chinese Exclusion Act

"That no Chinese person shall be permitted to enter the United States..."

The Pendleton Act (1883)

"That the President is authorized to appoint...as Civil Service Commissioners..."

Susan B. Anthony calls for Women's Suffrage by  Susan B. Anthony

"the only State where black women were exempted from taxation under the law"

The Exclusion of the Chinese

"The wisdom and justice of exclusion are still open questions."

Friends of the Indian

“Importance of taking Indian youth from the reservations to be trained in industrial schools placed among communities of white citizens”

The Rock Springs Massacre by  Alec Guinness

"Others were evidently fearful of being attacked..."

Chinese Miners Describe the Rock Springs Massacre

"We excited their animosity against us."

A Mother Protests Against the Denial of Equal Education by  Mary Tape

"Didn’t God make us all!!!"

A Protest Against the Statue of Liberty by  Saum Song Bo

"I feel that my countrymen and myself are honored..."

The Supreme Court Speaks Out on Equal Protection

"It appears that both petitioners have complied with every requisite..."

Women Migrants

"She is without funds"

A Haymarket Radical Addresses the Court by  Louis Lingg

"Him I have helped to make bombs"

A Haymarket Radical Addresses the Court by  Oscar Neebe

"reducing the hours of labor and increasing wages"

The Texas Farmers' Revolt

"We demand, first, the recognition…of trade unions, co-operative stores and such other associations"

Haymarket Martyr Albert Parsons's Last Letter to His Wife by  Albert Parsons

"doom to death is the handwriting on the wall"

Dawes Act

"An act to provide for the allotment of lands in severalty to Indians on the various reservations."


"What is the proper mode of administering wealth..."

The Texas Legislature Attacks Trusts

"Any violation of either or all the provisions of this act shall be…declared a conspiracy against trade"

Organized Labor in Texas

"We favor the repeal of the national bank law"

The Ghost Dance and the Wounded Knee Massacre by  Masse Hadjo

"The code of morals as practiced by the white race will not compare with the morals of the Indians"

The White Caps by  The White Caps

"be fair and just and we are with you"

The White Caps by  Felix Martínez

"the land-thief in his evil-doing must also be put down"

Documents Relating to the Wounded Knee Massacre

"My people looked pitiful"

Land Loss in New Mexico by  Hispano Commercial Club of Las Vegas

"We, with great respect, petition you to champion the cause of our people..."

The Ghost Dance
(06/ 20/1890)

"The ceremonies had just begun…. invoking...the Great Spirit to allow them to...talk with their people who had died."

Wovoka's Message by  James Mooney

"When you get home you must make a dance to continue five days."

An Account of Sitting Bull's Death

"This was the status of the Messiah craze…to see the evils that a continuation of the Ghost Dance would lead to..."

The Texas Populist Party Platform

"They have denied the country an income tax law"

The Ghost Dance and the Wounded Knee Massacre by  Benjamin Harrison

“The Sioux tribes are naturally warlike and turbulent”

The Ghost Dance and the Wounded Knee Massacre by  Red Cloud

“Even our little ponies were taken away”

Address to the Women's National Council by  Frances Willard
(02/22/1891 to 02/25/1891)

"It has taken women of brains and purpose over forty years to find out that they could be true to the faith born with them"

Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases (1892) by  Ida B. Wells

"Brave woman! you have done your people and mine a service which can neither be weighed nor measured."

The Strike at Homestead

Chinese Exclusion Bill

"This nation must throw some limitations on immigration to its shores."

Hearing of the Women Suffrage Association before House Committee on the Judiciary

"If we consider her as a citizen, as a member of a great nation, she must have the same rights as all other members"

Chinese Exclusion

"America’s open door to people of all nations...some restrictions must be placed...on the score of character and fitness, rather than of race"

Should the Chinese Be Excluded?

"When the rights of even one human being are held in contempt the rights of all are in danger."

Letters on the Pullman Strike
(08/17/1894 to 08/21/1894)

"I received a formal appeal as Governor"

A Red Record--Alleged Causes of Lynchings by  Ida B. Wells

"hundreds of colored men and women were mercilessly murdered"

Atlanta Exposition Address by  Booker T. Washington

"In all things that are purely social we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress"

Plessy v. Ferguson

"...separation of the two races stamps the colored race with a badge of inferiority."

The Ghost Dance and the Wounded Knee Massacre by  Stephen Vincent Benet

“Women and children of course were strewn all along the circular village”

Wovoka and the Ghost Dance by  Porcupine

“He told us...that all our dead were to resurrected”

Populist Party Platform

"Executive power and patronage have been used to corrupt our legislatures and defeat the will of the people."

The Citizenship Rights of Chinese Born in the United States

"All persons born or naturalized in the United States..."

The Farce of the Chinese Exclusion Laws

"The history of Chinese immigration in the United States is a somewhat peculiar one."

The Making of an American by  Jacob Riis

"I went out in the world to seek my fortune..."

The Biography of a Chinaman by  Lee Chew

"I never spoke unless spoken to..."

The Story of a Pioneer by  Anna Howard Shaw

"Our first day's journey covered less than eight miles..."

The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie by  Andrew Carnegie

"The arrival at New York was bewildering"

The Americanization of Edward Bok by  Edward Bok

"The emphasis was almost always placed on how much work one could do in a day, rather than upon how well the work was done."

The Pursuit and Capture of Chief Joseph

"I am tired; my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever."

Description of the Events at Haymarket Square, Chicago, May 4, 1886 by  Art Young

"police all over the country were watching for him"