"We deny the authority of Congress...or of any individuals, to give legal existence to Slavery in any Territory of the United States."
Democratic Platform, 1860 (Breckinridge faction)
"State thus organized ought to be admitted into the Federal Union, whether its constitution prohibits or recognizes the institution of slavery."
Democratic Platform, 1860 (Douglas faction)
"...difference of opinion exists in the Democratic party...over the institution of slavery"
"Serious and alarming dissensions have arisen between the northern and southern states..."
Declaration of Causes of Seceding States - South Carolina
"The slaveholding States will no longer have the power of self-government, or self-protection, and the Federal Government will have become their enemy."
Secession Ordinances of 13 Confederate States.
"..absolved from all the obligations, restraints, and duties incurred to the said
Federal Union, and shall from henceforth be a free, sovereign, and
Declaration of Causes of the Seceding States - Mississippi
"Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery-- the greatest material interest of the world."
Declaration of Causes of the Seceding States - Georgia
"To avoid these evils we resume the powers which our fathers delegated to the Government of the United States, and henceforth will seek new safeguards for our liberty, equality, security, and tranquility."
Battle Hymn of the Republic
Julia Ward Howe
"His truth is marching on."
Declaration of Causes of Seceding States - Texas
"They have refused to vote appropriations for protecting Texas against ruthless savages, for the sole reason that she is a slave-holding State."
The Civil War Begins
Letter from General Robert E. Lee to General Philip St. George Cocke
Robert E. Lee
"Invasion of our soil will be considered as an act of war"
The Mood in Marietta, Ohio, at the Beginning of the Civil War
"The battle [is] opened"
Life in Camp After the First Battle of Bull Run
James R. Kelly
"We had an alarm last night"
The Civil War as an Opportunity to Abolish Slavery and Destroy the Slave Power
John Jay III
"We have an agency...for the abolition of slavery in the...war"
Reflections on the War's Causes
"The men who struck this blow at our government are playing for a bigger stake than the right to...extend slavery"
Lincoln's Role in the Formulation of Military Strategy
"I propose to offer you a few suggestions"
Constitution of the Confederate States
"...in order to form a permanent federal government, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity..."
A Supporter of the Confederacy Reflects on the Emancipation Proclamation
"Lincoln's Proclamation will produce dissensions and trouble at the North"
Racism and the Law
"satisfied that even in a doubtful case, we would be impelled to this decision on ground of public policy"
President Lincoln Approves the Execution of a Slave Trader
"Nathaniel Gordon was indicted and convicted for being engaged in the Slave Trade"
Abraham Lincoln to Horace Greeley
"I would like a bill to have...three main features"
Firsthand Account of the Battle of Shiloh Written by a Northern Soldier
"A great number...were killed on Sunday"
California Imposes a Tax on Chinese Laborers
"shall be fined in a sum not exceeding one thousand dollars"
Confederate Reaction to "Beast" Butler
General Pierre G.T. Beauregard
"Shall our mothers, our wives, our daughters and sisters, be...outraged by the ruffianly soldiers of the North"
Speech to the Senate and House of Representatives of the Confederate States
"Our country is involved in desolating war"
Native Americans and the Civil War
"The Cherokee People...desire...ample Military protection for life and property"
The Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation
"All persons held as slaves...within any State in rebellion, shall be...free"
Abraham Lincoln Dismisses a Union Officer for Disloyalty
(09/26/1862 to 09/27/1862)
"To the question 'Why was not the rebel army bagged'...you answer 'That is not the game'"
Wartime Separation of Spouses
David V.M. Smith
"We have not been paid anything since I was at home"
The Civil War's Human Cost
George C. Burling
"We left...numbering near 3600...To day we do not number more than 1200"
Morrill Land Grant Act
"An Act donating Public Lands to...provide Colleges for the Benefit of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts."
A First-Hand Description of the Battle of Gettysburg
Josiah C. Fuller
"Worrying will do no good"
The Emancipation Proclamation
"An incalculable element of strength to the Union cause"
A Northerner Reflects on the Significance of the Emancipation Proclamation
"How is the Proclamation to be enforced?"
A Union Soldier Objects to the Emancipation Proclamation
A soldier in the 12th Vermont Militia
"The Administration are generally damned by the soldiers"
Samuel P. Chase Proposes a National Banking System
Samuel P. Chase
"I proposed a national Banking system"
Hardships on the Southern Home Front
Daniel H. Hill
"We have the whole world against us"
The Flight of Slaveholders to Texas
William Tecumseh Sherman
"They are all moving to Texas with their Negroes"
Resistance to Enlisting African Americans in the Union Army
Joseph M. Maitland
"If I could not command a Co[mpany] of white men, I would not command any"
A Union Soldier Describes His Attitudes Toward Race
"I am sorry to hear that the Rebels are in Pennsylvania"
Flagging Confederate Morale
Christian M. Epperly
"Our wickedness...has brought [us] to what we are"
A Union Soldier Describes the Attempt to Conquer Charleston, South Carolina
"I am...in the midst of death in every form and shape"
"...that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free."
Conflict with Native Americans During the Civil War
"The whites...will not allow their Ind[ians] to roam in their midst much longer"
Plight of Wartime Refugees
James E. Yeatman
"The condition of the Freed Negroes...is daily becoming worse"
“...government of the people, by the people, for the people.”
Benjamin F. Butler
"The recruitment of colored troops has become the settled purpose of the Government"
The Lawrence Massacre
"Rush on to the town!"
The Sand Creek Massacre
Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War
"Men, women, and children were indiscriminately slaughtered"
Four Documents on the Sand Creek Massacre
(1864 to 1865)
Lincoln Experiments with Colonization
"You are directed to have a transport...sent to the...colony established at...San Domingo"
Thirteenth Amendment Resolution
Congress of the United States
"Neither slave nor involuntary servitude...shall exist"
The Confederacy Begins to Collapse from Within
John McKinley Gibson
"Be prepared for the worst"
A Confederate Criticizes the Union Army of Occupation
"White children are to...mix in the same cabin with the Negro with the same Yankee Marm for the teacher!"
The Fate of Deserters
Christian M. Epperly
"Sad and awful Execution[s] which [have] taken place"
The Breakdown of the Plantation System
"If the South gains its independency plenty of slaves can be got from Africa"
The Two Roads to Peace
National Union Free Convention
"How shall we End the Rebellion...Coax it, or Crush it?"
A Union Lieutenant Reflects on General George McClellan's Presidential Campaign
"I think a majority of the soldiers are for Lincoln"
Testimony of the Assistant Commissioner of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands
"To kill a Negro they do not deem murder..."
Newspaper Account of a Meeting between Black Religious Leaders and Union Military Authorities
"We looked upon Gen. Sherman... as a man in the Providence of God."
An Ardent Republican Expresses Her View of Vice President Andrew Johnson
Mary Y. Prentiss
"All the senators are more anxious to have Mr. Lincoln live than...ever...before"
On to Richmond
"The cry [is]...on to Richmond"
General Robert E. Lee Surrenders
Robert E. Lee
"The Army...has been compelled to yield to overwhelming numbers and resources"
The Assassination of President Lincoln
"The President is murdered"
A Northerner Responds to the Assassination of President Lincoln
W. Henry Pearce
"The news...came...like a clap of thunder in a clear sky"
A Union Soldier Reacts to President Lincoln's Assassination
"It is a very hard blow for this nation to lose our President"
Conditions in the Postwar South
Edwin H. McCaleb
"Our country is now in a disturbed condition"
"absolute equality of rights and rights of property between former masters and slaves"
Second Inaugural Address
"With malice toward none, with charity for all...let us strive to...bind up the nation's wounds..."
Ex parte Milligan
"It is the birthright of every American citizen when charged with crime, to be tried and punished according to law."
Testimony Before Congress's Joint Committee on Reconstruction
"The word 'color' should be left out of all laws."
Great Sioux Uprising Of 1862
"All these things made many Indians dislike the whites"