CURRENT VIEW: BY ERA












































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From Termination to Self-Determination by  Philleo Nash
(1961)
"A shift in...emphasis away from termination"

Declaration of Indian Purpose
(1961)

“What we ask of America is not charity”

Farewell Address by  Dwight D. Eisenhower
(01/17/1961)

"We now stand ten years past the midpoint of a century that has witnessed four major wars among great nations."

The Bay of Pigs Invasion: Memorandum Arguing Against the Invasion by  Chester Bowles
(03/31/1961)

"In considerable degree, my concern stems from a deep personal conviction that our national interests are poorly served by a covert operation of this kind at a time when our new President is effectively appealing to world opinion on the basis of high principle."

Inaugural Address by  John F. Kennedy
(01/20/1961)

"We observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom."

Baker v. Carr
(1962)

"...denied the equal protection of the laws...by virtue of the debasement of their votes."

Engel v. Vitale
(1962)

"Daily classroom invocation of God's blessings...is a religious activity."

Religion in Public Schools: Engel v. Vitale
(1962)

Address to the American People about the Cuban Missile Crisis by  John F. Kennedy
(10/22/1962)

"Neither the United States of America nor the world community of nations can tolerate deliberate deception and offensive threats on the part of any nation, large or small."

Letter from Nikita Krushchev to President John Kennedy by  Nikita Khrushchev
(10/27/1962)

"Our purpose has been and is to help Cuba"

Letter from John Kennedy to Nikita Khrushchev by  John F. Kennedy
(10/27/1962)

"an arrangement for a permanent solution to the Cuban problem"

Letter to President John Kennedy Announcing Withdrawal of Missiles by  Nikita Khrushchev
(10/28/1962)

"the weapons you describe as offensive are formidable weapons indeed"

Gideon v. Wainwright
(1963)

"The fundamental nature of the right to counsel..."

Abington v. Schempp
(1963)

"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof ...."

Malcolm X speech by  Malcolm X
(06/1963)

"believe whole-heartedly in the God of justice"

Kennedy is Killed by Sniper by  Tom Wicker
(11/23/1963)

"Mr. Kennedy, Governor Connally and Mr. Johnson had just received an enthusiastic welcome from a large crowd in downtown Dallas."

I Have a Dream by  Martin Luther King, Jr.
(08/28/1963 )

"Free at last! free at last! thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"

The Ballot or the Bullet by  Malcolm X
(04/03/1964)

"And I don’t believe in fighting today in any one front, but on all fronts."

Griswold v. Connecticut
(1965)

"The sanctity of a man's home and the privacies of life."

Miranda v. Arizona
(1966)

"Officials took the defendant into custody and interrogated him ...for the purpose of obtaining a confession."

Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence by  Martin Luther King, Jr.
(04/04/1967)

"A time comes when silence is betrayal."

Problems of the American Indian: The Forgotten Americans by  Lyndon Johnson
(03/1968)

“I propose a new goal for our Indian programs”

I've Been to the Mountaintop by  Martin Luther King, Jr.
(04/03/1968)

"Be true to what you said on paper."

Seizure of Alcatraz Island by  American Indian Center
(1969)

“We wish to be fair and honorable in our dealings with the Caucasian inhabitants of this land”

A New Militancy by  Henry B. Gonzalez
(04/22/1969)

"by justice I mean decent work at decent wages for all who want work"

Dolores Huerta by  Proclamation of the Delano Grape Workers
(05/10/1969)

"our bodies are mortal and our journey hard"

Men Walk On Moon: Astronauts Land On Plain; Collect Rocks, Plant Flag by  John Noble Wilford
(07/21/1969)

New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) by  Hugo L. Black and Learned Hand
(1971)

Interview with Rosa Parks
(1995)

"We were human beings and we should be treated as such."

César Chavez by  César Chavez
(1997)

"employers use professional smugglers to recruit and transport human contraband"