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California Missions by  Junípero Serra

Conflict and Accomodation in the Northeast: A Naragansett Plea for Unity by  Miantonomo

“We must be as one as the English are.”

Columbus's Journal by  Christopher Columbus
(08/1492 to 11/1492)

"I had refused to receive the cotton from the native whom I sent on shore, although he pressed it upon me. I looked out after him and saw upon his landing that the others all ran to meet him with much wonder. It appeared to them that we were honest people..."

Utilizing the Native Labor Force by  Christopher Columbus
(10/14/1492 to 12/16/1492)

"With fifty men they can all be subjugated and made to do what is required of them"

The Meaning of America by  Christopher Columbus
(02/15/1493 to 03/04/1493)

"They have no iron or steel or weapons, nor are they capable of using them"

Columbus's Letter to the King and Queen of Spain
(1494)

"I will say whatever occurs to me in reference to the colonization and commerce of the Island of Espanola"

New World Fantasies by  Sir Thomas More
(1516)

"All slavery, and drudgery...is done by bondsmen"

Labor Needs by  Alonso de Zuazo
(01/22/1518)

"This is the best land in the world for Negroes"

The Spanish Borderlands by  Francisco Vázquez de Coronado
(1540 to 1542)

"They have the very best arrangement and machinery for grinding that was ever seen."

Coronado's Report to Viceroy Mendoza, Part I by  Francisco Vázquez de Coronado and Francisco Vázquez de Coronado
(08/03/1540)

Coronado's Report to Viceroy Mendoza, Part II by  Francisco Vázquez de Coronado
(08/03/1540)

Coronado's Report to Viceroy Mendoza, Part III by  Francisco Vázquez de Coronado
(08/03/1540)

Coronado's Report to Viceroy Mendoza, Part IV by  Francisco Vázquez de Coronado
(08/03/1540)

Coronado's Report to Viceroy Mendoza by  Francisco Vázquez de Coronado
(04/22/1540 to 08/03/1540)

"The people of the towns seem to me to be of ordinary size and intelligent, although I do not think that they have the judgment & intelligence which they ought to have to build these houses in the way in which they have..."

The Black Legend by  Bartolomé de las Casas
(1542)

"Great atrocities are committed against the indigenous people"

The Journey of Alvar Núñez Cabeza De Vaca by  Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
(1542)

"They brought us blankets, which they had been concealing from the Christians, and gave them to us."

The Diversity of Native America: The Plains by  Pedro de Castenada
(1542)

"There was such a multitude of cows [buffalo] that they were numberless."

Native Americans Discover Europeans by  The Gentleman of Elvas
(1557)

“Think...of what must be the effect...of the sight of you.”

Sir Humphrey Gilbert's Voyage to Newfoundland by  Edward Haies
(1583)

"A report of the Voyage and success thereof, attempted in the year of our Lord 1583, by Sir Humphrey Gilbert..."

Justifications for English Involvement in the New World by  Richard Hakluyt
(1584)

"The Kings of Spain...have rooted out above fifteen millions of reasonable people"

A Rationale for New World Colonization by  Richard Hakluyt
(1584)

"All our...trades in all Europe...may...[count] for little... [compared with] America"

Discourse of Western Planting by  Richard Hakluyt
(1584)

"That this enterprise will be for the manifolde imploymente of nombers of idle men..."

A Critique of the Slave Trade by  Fray Tomas de Mercado
(1587)

"A thousand acts of robbery and violence are committed in the course of bartering and carrying off Negroes"

Return to Roanoke by  John White
(1590)

"Being thus wearied with this iourney we returned to the harbour where we left our boates."

The Diversity of Native America: The Southwest by  Juan de Onate
(1599)

"Their government is one of complete freedom."

Opening of the French Fur Trade by  Samuel De Champlain
(1604)

"They might in the future more than ever before engage in hunting beavers"

Instructions for the Virginia Colony
(1606)

"You must observe if you can, whether the river on which you plant doth spring out of mountains or out of lakes."

England's First Enduring North American Settlement by  John Smith
(1608 to 1609)

"Being ready with clubs to beat out his brains, Pocahontas...got his head in her arms"

Conflict and Cooperation in the Southeast by  Powhatan
(1609)

"I know the difference of peace and war better then any in my Country."

The Pilgrims Arrive in Plymouth by  William Bradford
(1620 to 1647)

"In 2 or 3 months time, half of their company died"

Mayflower Compact
(1620)

"...a Voyage to plant the first Colony in the northern Parts of Virginia..."

Race War in Virginia by  Edward Waterhouse
(1622)

"They basely and barbarously murdered, not sparing either age or sex"

Life in Early Virginia by  Sebastian Brandt
(01/13/1622)

"My brother and my wife are dead"

Pocahontas by  John Smith

Pocahontas, the King's dearest daughter, when no entreaty could prevail, got his head in her arms, and laid her own upon his to save him from death.

Reasons for Puritan Migration by  John Winthrop
(1629)

"Most children...are perverted, corrupted, & utterly overthrown by the multitude of evil examples"

The Idea of the Covenant by  John Winthrop
(1630)

"Some must be rich, some poor, some high and eminent in power...others mean and in subjection"

City Upon a Hill by  John Winthrop
(1630)

"Beloved there is now sett before us life, and good, deathe and evill in that wee are Commaunded this day to love the Lord our God, and to love one another to walke in his wayes and to keepe his Commaundements and his Ordinance..."

Mounting Conflict with Native Americans by  John Winthrop
(1634)

"For the number of our people...be in all about 4000 souls"

Native Americans Discover Europeans by  William Wood
(1634)

“They took the first ship they saw for a walking island.”

The Pilgrims from the Indian Perspective by  William Apes
(1636)

"Without asking liberty from anyone, they possessed themselves of a potion of the country"

Servitude in New England by  John Winter
(1639)

"[Ill] reports is given of my Wyfe for beatinge the maid"

Puritan Economics by  John Winthrop
(1640)

"Some false principles are these"

Native Americans as Active Agents by  Roger Williams
(07/06/1640)

"The Monhiggin [Mohican] refuseth to part with his prey"

Maryland Toleration Act
(09/21/1649)

"...shalbe punished with death and confiscation or forfeiture of all his or her lands and goods to the Lord Proprietary and his heires."

New Netherlands: America's First Multicultural Society by  Adriaen Van Der Donck
(1650)

"There are, also, various other Negroes in this country"

Indentured Servitude by  John Hammond
(1656)

"[Virginia] is reported to be an unhealthy place, a nest of Rogues [and] dissolute...persons"

Navigation Acts
(1660 to 1696)

"no sugars, tobacco, cotton-wool, indigoes, ginger, fustic, or other dyeing wood, of the growth, production, or manufacture of any English plantations in America, Asia, or Africa, shall be shipped, carried, conveyed, or transported from any of the said English plantations to any land, island, territory, dominion, port, or place whatsoever"

Virginia Slave Laws
(1662 to 1669)

"All children...shall be held bond or free only according to the condition of the mother"

Mercantilist Ideas by  Thomas Mun
(1664)

"Although this Realm be already exceedingly rich...yet might it be much increased"

Beginnings of the Fur Trade in the Carolinas by  Dr. Henry Woodward
(1674)

"They presented me diverse dear skins"

New Netherlands Becomes New York by  New York
(01/1674)

"All people shall continue free"

King Philip's War by  Edmund Randolph
(1675)

"Various are the reports...of the causes of the present Indian warre"

The Quaker Ideal of Religious Tolerance by  William Penn
(1675)

"Persons have been flung into Jails"

King Philip's War by  Edmund Randolph
(1675)

“There having been about 1,200 houses burned.”

Indian Affairs by  William Kendall
(10/30/1679)

"Yours having entered our houses, taken away and destroyed our goods and People"

Indian Affairs
(10/31/1679)

"The English...shot some of our People dead"

Coexistence and Conflict in the Spanish Southwest: The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 by  Pedro Naranjo
(1680)

“Why they burned the images, temples, crosses, rosaries, and things of divine worship.”

Resistance and Accommodation in New Mexico by  Don Antonio de Otermin
(09/08/1680)

"asking how they expected to live without the religious..."

Regional Contrasts by  Thomas Culpepper and
(09/20/1680)

"We walked in the woods amongst wild beasts...at least twenty miles, expecting to die"

Account of the Pueblo Revolt by  Don Antonio de Qtermin
(09/08/1680)

"On the next day, Saturday, they began at dawn to press us harder and more closely with gunshots, arrows, and stones, saying to us that now we should not escape them, and that, besides their own numbers, they were expecting help from the Apaches whom they had already summoned."

The Diversity of Native America: The Middle Colonies by  William Penn
(1683)

"In liberality they excel."

The Iroquois and English Form an Alliance by  A Speech of the Onondagas & Cajouga Sachems
(1684)

“You must Protect us against the French, which if you don’t we shall loose all our Hunting & Bevers.”

Indian Affairs
(06/29/1685)

"The Governor of Canada is Intended to Destroy us"

Memoir for the Marquis de Seignelay regarding the Dangers that Threaten Canada and the Means to Remedy Them
(01/1687)

"Canada is encompassed by many powerful Colonies of English who labor incessantly to ruin it by exciting all our Indians."

The Schenectady Massacre by  Robert Livingston
(02/09/1689 to 1690)

"As to the causes of this war...jealousy arising from the trading of our people...seems to be the principal one"

Struggles for Power by  Thomas Danforth
(02/17/1689)

"Take, kill, & destroy [th]e enemy without limitation of place or time"

An Indian Slave Woman Confesses to Witchcraft by  Salem Village
(03/01/1691)

"Tituba an Indian woman [was] brought before us...upon Suspicion of witchcraft"

The Wonders of the Invisible World by  Cotton Mather and
(1693)

"The devil is now making one attempt more upon us"

South Carolina by  James Moore
(03/01/1698 to 1699)

"Reflecting S[i]r on the weakness of this our Colony"

The Sin of Slaveholding by  Samuel Sewall
(1700)

"Liberty is in real value next to life"

The Selling of Joseph: A Memorial by  Samuel Sewall
(1700)

King William of England Addresses Parliament on the French Question by  King William
(12/31/1701)

"I am only pressing you to do all you can for your own safety and honour, at so critical and dangerous a time."

Persecution of the Quakers
(11/11/1702)

"We are...necessitated to lay before the Governor an oppression we lie under"

Robert Beverley on Bacon's Rebellion by  Robert Beverly
(1704)

"In the mean time Bacon was expeditious in his preparations, and having all things in readiness, began his march, depending on the authority the people had given him."

English Liberties and Deference by  Joseph Dudley
(01/23/1705)

"I am good flesh & blood as you"

Queen Anne's War by  Thomas Oliver
(10/20/1708)

"They are animated...to such barbarity by the French"

The Schenectady Massacre by  Richard Ingoldsby
(07/14/1709)

"The French of Canada have killed [and] Imprisoned...your People"

English Liberties by  Henry Care
(1721)

"The Constitution of our English Government [is] the best in the World"

Georgia by  James Oglethorpe
(1733)

"The Trustees intend to relieve such unfortunate persons as cannot subsist here [in England]"

Suspicion of Arbitrary Power by  John P. Zenger
(03/11/1733)

"If every Man had his Will, all Men would exercise Dominion"

Whitefield Sermon
(1740)

"These shall go away into everlasting punishment."

Life on the Plantation by  Eliza Lucas
(05/02/1740)

I have the business of three plantations to transact, which requires much writing and rather more business and fatigue of other sorts than you can imagine.

Responding to Advice From Her Father About How To Behave as a Wife by  Eliza Lucas
(1742)

Assuming Adult Responsibilities by  Eliza Lucas
(06/1742)

The Great Awakening
(07/11/1743)

"Authentick Accounts...of the Revival of Religion"

Fear of Slave Revolts by  Daniel Horsmanden
(1744)

"The Negroes were rising"

Educational Toy
(05/20/1745)

...to play himself into learning

Indentured Servitude by  Javin Toby
(01/09/1747)

"An apprentice...for...ye Term of fifteen years & five Months"

Immigration and Ethnic Diversity by  Gottlieb Mittelberger
(1750)

"During the voyage there is...terrible misery"

A Discourse Concerning Unlimited Submission and Non-Resistance to the Higher Powers by  Jonathan Mayhew
(1750)

"Render therefore to all their dues; tribute, to whom tribute is due; custom, to whom custom; fear, to whom fear; honor, to whom honor."

America as a Land of Opportunity by  Benjamin Franklin and
(1751)

"Why increase the Sons of Africa...where we have so fair an Opportunity...of increasing the lovely White and Red?"

On the Misfortune of Indentured Servants by  Gottlieb Mittelberger
(1754)

"But during the voyage there is on board these ships terrible misery, stench, fumes, horror, vomiting, many kinds of sea-sickness,..."

A Soldier's Diary by  Robert Moses
(1755)

"Cutlasses and hatchets playing on every quarter with much effusion of blood"

British North America in 1755
(05/22/1755)

"Canada must be subdued"

Fasting and Repentance by  Stephen Hopkins
(05/12/1756)

"The English Colonies...are fallen under the Chastising hand of Heaven"

The Capture of Québec by  John Knox
(1757 to 1760)

"We...clambered up one of the steepest precipices that can be conceived"

Journal of John Woolman by  John Woolman
(1757)

"I believed that liberty was the natural right of all men equally"

The Diversity of Native America: The Northeast by  Pierre de Charlevoix
(1761)

"Amongst the Huron nations, the women name the counselors."

Great Wars for Empire by  Minavavana
(1761)

“Although you have conquered the French, you have not yet conquered us!”

The Fate of Native Americans by  Richard Peters
(02/12/1761)

"I most heartily congratulate you on the surrender of Canada"

Advice from the Master of Life by  Pontiac
(1763)

“Drive them out, make war on them.”

Shifting Loyalties by  Ostenaco
(1765)

“The bloody tomahawk...must now be buried.”

Treatment of Indians by  Junípero Serra
(1775)

Coexistence and Conflict in the Spanish Southwest: The California Missions by  Alexander Forbes
(1839)

“Some of these means [of obtaining converts] go far beyond the bounds of legitimate persuasion”

Native Americans Discover Europeans by  Joseph Nicolar
(1893)

“They take...[our] hand in their own.”