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The Civil War

This chapter examines the election of 1860, the secession crisis, the relative strengths and weaknesses of the Union and the Confederacy, the military history of the war, as well as the economic and social changes the war produced.

The Election of 1860
South Carolina Leaves the Union
Establishing the Confederacy
Last-Ditch Efforts at Compromise
Fort Sumter
Lincoln Responds to Secession
War Begins
Prospects for Victory
Why the Civil War Was So Lethal
Bull Run
A War for Union
The Anaconda Plan
Pressure for Emancipation
War in the West
A Will to Destroy
The Eastern Theater
Native Americans and the Civil War
War Within a War
The Significance of Names
The Emancipation Proclamation
The Meaning of the Emancipation Proclamation
The Home Front
The Death Toll
The Second American Revolution
The Confederacy Begins to Collapse
The New York City Draft Riots
Blacks in Blue
Fort Wagner
The Battle Against Discrimination
Towards Gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg
Was Lincoln a Racist?
The Thirteenth Amendment
Total War
Slaves' Role in Their Own Liberation
The 1864 Presidential Election
Grant Takes Command
A Stillness at Appomattox
'The President is murdered'
The War's Costs