1. The ISSEI
-- First generation of Japanese. Entire cultural background Japanese.
Probably loyal romantically to Japan. They must be considered,
however, as other races. They have made this their home. They
have brought up children here, their wealth accumulated by hard
labor is here, and many would have become Amercian citizens had
they been allowed to do so. They are for the most part simple
people. Their age group is largely 55 to 65, fairly old for a
or first generation, is considerably weakened in their loyalty
to Japan by the fact that they have chosen to make this their
home and have brought up their children here. They expect to die
here. They are quite fearful of being put in a concentration camp.
Many would take out American citizenship if allowed to do so.
The haste of this report does not allow us to go into this more
fully. The Issei have to break with their religion, their god
and Emperor, their family, their ancestors and their after-life
in order to be loyal to the United States. They are also still
legally Japanese. Yet they do break, and send their boys off to
the Army with pride and tears. They are good neighbors. They are
old men fifty-five to sixty-five, for the most part simple and
dignified. Roughly they were Japanese lower middle class, about
analogous to the pilgrim fathers.
2. The NISEI
-- Second generation who have received their whole education in
the United States and usually, in spite of discrimination against
them and a certain amount of insults accumulated through the years
from irresponsible elements, show a pathetic eagerness to be Americans.
They are in constant conflict with the orthodox, well disciplined
family life of their elders. Age group -- 1 to 30 years.
There are still Japanese in the United States who will tie dynamite
around their waist and make a human bomb out of themselves. We
grant this, but today they are few. Many things indicate that
very many joints in the Japanese set-up show age, and many elements
are not what they used to be. The weakest from a Japanese standpoint
are the Nisei. They are universally estimated from 90 to 98 percent
loyal to the United States if the Japanese-educated element of
the Kibei is excluded. The Nisei are pathetically eager to show
this loyalty. They are not Japanese in culture. They are foreigners
to Japan. Though American citizens they are not accepted by Americans,
largely because they look differently and can be easily recognized.
The Japanese American Citizens League should be encouraged, the
while an eye is kept open, to see that Tokio does not get its
finger in this pie -- which it has in a few cases attempted to
do. The loyal Nisei hardly knows where to turn. Some gesture of
protection or wholehearted acceptance of this group would go a
long way to swinging them away from any last romantic hankering
after old Japan. They are not oriental or mysterious, they are
very American and are of a proud, self-respecting race suffering
from a little inferiority complex and a lack of contact with the
white boys they went to school with. They are eager for this contact
and to work alongside them.
3. The KIBEI
-- This is an important division of the NISEI. This is the term
used by the Japanese to signify those American born Japanese who
received part or all of their education in Japan. In any consideration
of the KIBEI they should be again divided into two classes, i.e.
those who received their education in Japan from childhood to
about 17 years of age and those who received their early formative
education in the United States and returned to Japan for four
or five years Japanese education. The Kibei are considered the
most dangerous element and closer to the Issei with special reference
to those who received their early education in Japan. It must
be noted, however, that many of those who visited Japan subsequent
to their early American education come back with added loyalty
to the United States. In fact it is a saying that all a Nisei
needs is a trip to Japan to make a loyal American out of him.
The American educated Japanese is a boor in Japan and treated
as a foreigner...
4. The SANSEI
-- The Third generation of Japanese is a baby and may be disregarded
for the purpose of our survey….
Japanese does not suffer from the same inferiority complex or
feel the same mistrust of the whites that he does on the mainland.
While it is seldom on the mainland that you find even a college-educated
Japanese-American citizen who talks to you wholly openly until
you have gained his confidence, this is far from the case in Hawaii.
Many young Japanese there are fully as open and frank and at ease
with a white as white boys are. In a word, Hawaii is more of a
melting pot because there are more brown skins to melt -- Japanese,
Hawaiian, Chinese and Filipino. It is interesting to note that
there has been absolutely no bad feeling between the Japanese
and the Chinese in the islands due to the Japanese-Chinese war.
Why should they be any worse toward us?
Due to the
preponderance of Japanese in the population of the Islands, a
much greater proportion of Japanese have been called to the draft
than on the mainland. As on the mainland they are inclined to
enlist before being drafted. The Army is extremely high in its
praise of them as recruits... They are beginning to feel that
they are going to get a square deal and some of them are really
almost pathetically exuberant….
was all the same. There is no Japanese `problem' on the Coast.
There will be no armed uprising of Japanese. There will undoubtedly
be some sabotage financed by Japan and executed largely by imported
agents... In each Naval District there are about 250 to 300 suspects
under surveillance. It is easy to get on the suspect list, merely
a speech in favor of Japan at some banquet being sufficient to
land one there. The Intelligence Services are generous with the
title of suspect and are taking no chances. Privately, they believe
that only 50 or 60 in each district can be classed as really dangerous.
The Japanese are hampered as saboteurs because of their easily
recognized physical appearance. It will be hard for them to get
near anything to blow up if it is guarded. There is far more danger
from Communists and people of the Bridges type on the Coast than
there is from Japanese. The Japanese here is almost exclusively
a farmer, a fisherman or a small businessman. He has no entree
to plants or intricate machinery.
In case we
have not made it apparent, the aim of this report is that all
Japanese Nationals in the continental United States and property
owned and operated by them within the country be immediately placed
under absolute Federal control. The aim of this will be to squeeze
control from the hands of the Japanese Nationals into the hands
of the loyal Nisei who are American citizens... It is the aim
that the Nisei should police themselves, and as a result police