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Section 2: Building the Black Community: The Family Section 2: Building the Black Community: The Church Section 2: Building the Black Community: The School Section 2: Quest for Economic Autonomy and Equal Rights Section 2:  Memory and Mourning Section 2: Violence

Francis L. Cardoza

Francis L. Cardozo

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Although he claimed to have no desire to enter politics, Cardozo was elected to the constitutional convention of 1868, and the became the first black state official in South Carolina's history, holding the positions of secretary of state (1868-72) and treasurer (1872-76).

He was defeated for reelection in 1876, when Democrats launched a campaign of violence that ended Republican rule in the state.

Copyright 2003
A New Birth of Freedom: Reconstruction During the Civil War The Meaning of Freedom: Black and White Responses to Slavery From Free Labor to Slave Labor Rights and Power: The Politics of Reconstruction Introduction The Ending of Reconstruction Epilogue Additional Resources Credits for this Exhibit