The late 19th century marked the nadir of Indian life. Deprived of their
homelands, their revolts suppressed, and their way of life besieged, many Plains
Indians dreamed of restoring a vanished past, free of hunger, disease, and bitter
warfare. Beginning in the 1870s, a religious movement known as the Ghost Dance
arose among Indians of the Great Basin, and then spread, in the late 1880s,
to the Great Plains. Beginning among the Paiute Indians of Nevada in 1870, the
Ghost Dance promised to restore the way of life of their ancestors.
During the late 1880s, the Ghost Dance had great appeal among the Sioux, despairing
over the death of a third of their cattle by disease and angry that the federal
government had cut their food rations. In 1889, Wovoka, a Paiute holy man from
Nevada, had a revelation. If only the Sioux would perform sacred dances and
religious rites, then the Great Spirit would return and raise the dead, restore
the buffalo to life, and cause a flood that would destroy the whites.
Wearing special Ghost Dance shirts, fabricated from white muslin and decorated
with red fringes and painted symbols, dancers would spin in a circle until they
became so dizzy that they entered into a trance. White settlers became alarmed:
"Indians are dancing in the snow and are wild and crazy...We need protection,
and we need it now."
Fearful that the Ghost Dance would lead to a Sioux uprising, army officials
ordered Indian police to arrest the Sioux leader Sitting Bull. When Sitting
Bull resisted, he was killed. In the ensuing panic, his followers fled the Sioux
reservation. Federal troops tracked down the Indians and took them to a cavalry
camp on Wounded Knee Creek. There, on December 29, 1890, one of the most brutal
incidents in American history took place. While soldiers disarmed the Sioux,
someone fired a gun. The soldiers responded by using machine guns to slaughter
over 200 Indian men, women, and children. The Oglala Sioux spiritual leader
Black Elk summed up the meaning of Wounded Knee:
I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud, and was buried
in the blizzard. A people's dream died there.
The Battle of Wounded Knee marked the end of three centuries of bitter warfare
between Indians and whites. Indians had been confined to small reservations,
where reformers would seek to transform them into Christian farmers. In the
future, the Indian struggle to maintain an independent way of life and a separate
culture would take place on new kinds of battlefields.
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