Japanese Internment eXplorations menu The Decision to Intern The Internment Experience Internment Resources Teacher Resources Japanese American Internment

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Leading to Internment:

How did the U.S. Supreme Court respond to the internment of Japanese Americans?

Supreme Court Decisions:

How did Presidents respond to the internment of Japanese Americans?

Presidential Orders:

  • President Franklin Roosevelt's Executive Order No. 9066 - Authorizing the Secretary of War to Prescribe Military Areas, February 19, 1942
  • President Franklin Roosevelt's Act of March 21, 1942
  • President Gerald R. Ford's Proclamation 4417, Confirming the Termination of the Executive Order Authorizing Japanese-American Internment During World War II, February 19, 1976
  • In 1980, President Jimmy Carter assisted Japanese Americans with the issue of redress and the Commission on the Wartime Relocation of and Internment of Civilians was created. In 1983, that Commission issued a report titled, Personal Justice Denied, in which it stated that relocation could not be justified under the guise of military necessity. It further found that relocation was the result of war hysteria, race prejudice and a failure of political leadership.
  • President Bill Clinton's Letter to Internees
  • President George Bush's Letter to Internees

How did Congress respond to the internment of Japanese Americans?

  • Civil Liberties Act of 1988, "Restitution for World War II internment of Japanese-Americans and Aleuts" (signed by President Ronald Regan)
"Exclusion Order posted at First and Front Streets in San Francisco directing removal of persons of Japanese ancestry from the first section of the city to be affected by evacuation. Evacuees will be housed in War Relocation Authority centers for the duration." FDR Library. April 1, 1942.

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