of American History
A Virginia slave and blacksmith
who organized an attempted assault against Richmond in 1800.
Gallaudet, Thomas Hopkins
Founder of the nation's
first school to teach deaf mutes to read and write and communicate
through hand signals.
Garrison, William Lloyd
The leader of radical abolitionism,
Garrison sought immediate freedom for slaves without compensation
to their owners.
Republican residential candidate
in 1964, Goldwater spearheaded an emergent conservative
drive out of the South and West. Unhappy with the nation's
path toward liberalism, Goldwater called for more limited
taxes, a reduction in legislation aiding farmers and organized
labor, and a reduction of federal spending.
Good Neighbor Policy
During the administration
of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the U.S. policy of not
interfering in the internal affairs of hemispheric neighbors.
The last leader of the Soviet
Union, Gorbachev adopted policies of glasnost (political
liberalization) and stroika (economic reform).
Gospel of Wealth
The belief that God ordains
certain people to amass money and use it to further God's
purposes, it justified the concentration of wealth as long
as the rich used their money responsibly.
In World War II, the alliance
between the United States, Great Britain, and France.
Spilling over into the colonies
from a wave of revivals in Europe, the Awakening placed
renewed emphasis on vital religious faith, partially in
reaction to more secular, rationalist thinking characterizing
the Enlightenment. Beginning as scattered revivals in the
1720s, the Awakening grew into a fully developed outpouring
of rejuvenated faith by the 1740s. Key figures included
Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield. The Awakening's
legacy included more emphasis on personal choice, as opposed
to state mandates about worship, in matters of religious
The mass movement of African
Americans from the South to the North during World War I.
The liberal reform program
of President Lyndon Johnson. The program included civil
rights legislation, increased public spending to help the
poor, Medicare and Medicaid programs, educational legislation,
and liberalized immigration policies.
A political party founded
in 1874 to promote the issuance of legal tender paper currency
not backed by precious metals in order to inflate the money
supply and relieve the suffering of people hurt by the era's
deflation, most of its members merged with the Populist
To help fund the military
forces used against the Confederacy during the Civil War,
the federal Congress issued a paper currency known as greenbacks.
Even though greenbacks had no backing in specie (hard currency),
this currency held its value fairly well because of mounting
confidence the Union would prevail in the war. See also
Grimke, Angelina, and Sarah
Born to a wealthy South
Carolina slaveholding family, these sisters became leaders
in the abolitionist and women's rights movements.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Following two reported attacks
on the U.S.S. Maddox in 1964, American president Lyndon
B. Johnson asked for and received this authorization from
Congress to "take all necessary measures" to repel
attacks, prevent aggression, and protect American security.
It allowed Johnson to act without Congressional authorization
on military matters in Vietnam.
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Realizing that many children
of the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first generation were
not actively seeking God's saving grace and full church
membership, the question was how to keep the next generation
of children active in church affairs. The solution, agreed
to in 1662, was to permit the baptism of children and grandchildren
of professing saints, thereby according them half-way membership.
Full church membership still would come only after individuals
testified to a conversion experience. This compromise on
standards of membership was seen as a sign of declension.
The first secretary of the
treasury and a leader of the Federalist party. As secretary
of the treasury, he devised a plan for repaying the nation's
debts and promoting economic growth. This plan included
funding and assumption of the national and state debts at
face value, establishment of the Bank of the United States,
and tariffs on imported goods. Hamilton died following a
duel with Aaron Burr in 1804.
Self-conscious African American
cultural, literary, and artistic movement centered in Harlem
in New York City during the 1920s.
Convention held in late
1814 and early 1815 by New Englanders opposed to the War
of 1812, which recommended Constitutional amendments to
weaken the power of the South and to restrict Congress's
power to impose embargoes or declare war.
Haymarket Square Riot
A violent encounter between
police and protesters in 1886 in Chicago, which led to the
execution of four protest leaders, it scared the public
with the specter of labor violence and demonstrated governments'
support of industrialists over workers.
As an economic incentive
to encourage English to settle in Virginia and other English
colonies during the seventeenth century, sponsoring parties
would offer 50 acres of land per person to those who migrated
or who paid for the passage of others willing to migrate
to America. Because of Virginia's high death rate and difficult
living conditions, headrights functioned as an inducement
to help bolster the colony's low settlement rate.
Helper, Hinton Rowan
The North Carolina-born
author of The Impending Crisis of the South, a book
that argued that slavery was incompatible with economic
Six German principalities
provided 30,000 soldiers to Great Britain to fight against
the American rebels during the War for Independence. More
than half of these troops-for-hire came from Hesse-Cassel.
Hessian thus would serve as the generic term for all German
mercenaries fighting in the war, whether or not they came
Tolerance of religious diversity
was at the core of William Penn's vision for a colony in
America. As such, the colony of Pennsylvania represented
a "holy experiment" for Penn. He encouraged people
of all faiths to live together in harmony and to maintain
harmonious relations with Native Americans in the region.
The residents of early Pennsylvania never fully embraced
Penn's vision, but the colony was open to religious dissenters
and became a model for the diversity that later characterized
Herbert Hoover's program
as director of the Food Administration to conserve food
during World War I.
Shanty towns of the Great
Depression, named after President Herbert Hoover.
House Un-American Activities
This House of Representatives
committee investigated subversive right- and left-wing movements.
During the Cold War, it was best known for its two investigations
of the American film industry.
Howe, Samuel Gridley
Founder of the nation's
first school for the blind.
Hudson Highlands Strategy
The British tried to execute
this strategy early in the War for American Independence
but never successfully implemented it. The idea was to gain
control of the Hudson River-Lake Champlain corridor running
north from New York City and south from Montreal, Canada.
Had they done so, the effect would have been to cut off
New England, the initial center of rebellion, from the rest
of the colonies. New England could then have been reconquered
in detail. The failure to coordinate the movements of British
forces in 1776 and 1777 resulted in the capture of John
Burgoyne's army at Saratoga, New York, in October, which
ended any attempt to snuff out the rebellion by retaking
Defined by historian Donald
Worster as "a social order based on the intensive manipulation
of water and its products in an arid setting," it characterized
the irrigated societies of the modern West, allowing for
agricultural productivity and a massive demographic shift
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The view that the national
government's powers are not limited to those stated explicitly
in the U.S. Constitution.
The British practice of
seizing seamen from American merchant ships and forcing
them to serve in the British navy. Impressment was one of
the causes of the War of 1812.
Imprisonment for Debt
During the early nineteenth
century, reformers succeeded in restricting imprisonment
In an effort to entice English
subjects to the colonies, parties would offer legal bonded
contracts that would exchange the cost of passage across
the Atlantic for up to seven years of labor in America.
Indenture contracts also required masters to provide food,
clothing, farm tools, and sometimes land when the term of
bonded service had expired, thus allowing former servants
the opportunity to gain full economic independence in America.
pardoning persons from punishment in the afterlife that
were being sold by the Roman Catholic church. Martin Luther
particularly condemned this practice in his Ninety-five
Theses, in bringing on the Protestant Reformation.
The Influence of Sea
Power Upon History
1890 book by Alfred Thayer
Mahan that argued nations expand their world power through
foreign commerce and a strong navy. Strongly influenced
American politicians who advocated expansion.
A procedure that allows
citizens to propose legislation through petitions, it was
passed by numerous states at the turn of the century but
rarely used until the 1970s.
The legal principle that
a criminal act should only be punished if the offender was
fully capable of distinguishing right from wrong.
Interstate Commerce Commission
The first federal regulatory
agency, established by passage of the Interstate Commerce
Act in 1887 to regulate the railroads. The ICC's powers
were expanded to oversee other forms of transportation and
Iranian Hostage Crisis
In November 1979, Iranian
students seized the U.S. embassy compound in Tehran and
held 52 Americans inside hostage for 444 days.
As major general during
the War of 1812, he defeated the Creek Indians at the Battle
of Horseshoe Bend and a British army at the Battle of New
Orleans. In 1818, he led an American incursion into Spanish-held
Florida. He served as seventh president of the United States
from 1829 to 1837.
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Musical style based on improvisation
within a band format, combining African traditions of repetition,
call and response, and strong beat with European structure.
The primary author of the
Declaration of Independence, the first secretary of state,
and the third president of the United States. As president,
he was responsible for the Louisiana Purchase and the Embargo
of 1807, which sought to end British and French interference
with American shipping.
This appellation was used
to refer to common soldiers serving in Confederate armies
during the Civil War. See Billy
Joint Stock Trading Companies
These companies were given
the right to develop trade between England and certain geographic
regions, such as Russia or India. Investors would pool their
capital, in return for shares of stock, to underwrite trading
ventures. One such company, the Virginia Company, failed
to secure profits for its investors but laid the basis for
the first major English colony in the Americas.
The power of the courts
to determine the constitutionality of acts of other branches
of government and to declare unconstitutional acts null
Judiciary Act of 1801
Passed by the Federalists
after they had lost control of Congress in the election
of 1800, the act reduced the size of the Supreme Court,
created a new set of circuit courts, and increased the number
of district court judges. The Jeffersonian Republicans repealed
the act in 1801.
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Kaiser, Henry J.
Industrialist who epitomized
the close relationship between government and industry in
the West. His shipyards, financed by government loans and
bolstered by cost-plus government contracts, employed close
to 300,000 Californians.
Controversial 1854 legislation
that opened Kansas and Nebraska to white settlement, repealed
the Compromise of 1820, and led opponents to form the Republican
After an early public life
as a committed Cold Warrior, Kennedy ran for the Democratic
nomination in 1968 as a peace candidate representative of
young liberals. His assassination while on the campaign
trail helped create the disenchantment of many young Americans
with the political process.
Personable Soviet premier
during Eisenhower's presidential term. Khrushchev condemned
Stalin's purges and welcomed a melting of the Cold War,
although he crushed a 1956 democratic uprising in Hungary.
The national security advisor
to President Nixon, the Harvard-educated German Jewish immigrant
was a staunch anti-Communist. He was Nixon's closest associate
on matters of foreign policy.
Knights of Labor
A labor organization founded
in 1869, it called for the unity of all workers, rejected
industrial capitalism, and favored cooperatively owned businesses
but was discredited by such labor violence as the Haymarket
Square riot and did not survive the depression of the 1890s.
Know Nothing Party
An anti-foreign, anti-Catholic
political party that arose following massive Irish and Catholic
immigration during the late 1840s. The Know Nothing party
replaced the Whigs as the second largest party in New England
and some other states between 1853 and 1856.
Ku Klux Klan
A secret organization founded
in the southern states during Reconstruction to terrorize
and intimidate former slaves and prevent them from voting
or holding public office. Officially disbanded in 1869,
a second anti-black, anti-Catholic, and anti-Semitic Klan
emerged in 1915 that aimed to preserve "Americanism."
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An economic theory based
upon the ideas of Adam Smith, it contended that in a free
economy self-interest would lead individuals to act in ways
that benefited society as a whole and therefore government
should not intervene.
Bold foreign policy put
forth by Henry Cabot Lodge and others, advocating a canal
through the Central American isthmus and a strong American
naval presence in the Caribbean and Pacific.
League of Nations
Point Fourteen of Wilson's
Fourteen Points, the proposal to establish an international
organization to guarantee the territorial integrity of independent
The program by which the
United States provided arms and supplies to the Allies in
World War II before joining the fighting.
An antislavery political
party founded in 1839.
Rising to power in Hawaii
in 1891, she initiated a strong anti-American policy. Her
overthrow in 1893 by white islanders paved the way for ultimate
American annexation in 1897.
Little Rock Crisis
Conflict in 1957 when governor
Orval Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent
the racial integration of Little Rock's Central High School.
After a crucial delay, President Eisenhower federalized
the National Guard troops and sent in 1000 paratroopers
to foster the school's integration.
The view that the national
government has the power to create agencies or enact statutes
to fulfill the powers granted by the U.S. Constitution.
The leader of the Haitian
This informal group of pro-colonial
rights leaders in Boston helped organize resistance against
unwanted British policies, such as the Stamp Act. Working
with more visible popular leaders like Samuel Adams and
street leaders like Ebenezer Mackintosh, the Loyal Nine
both planned and gave overall direction to controlled violent
protests in defying the imperial will and protecting the
community's interests in Boston during the 1760s.
British ship carrying American
passengers sunk by a German submarine on May 15, 1915.
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MacArthur, General Douglas
Bold, arrogant American
general celebrated for his successful amphibious invasion
at Inchon, on North Korean forces' rear. MacArthur's subsequent
invasion into North Korea stalled, and President Truman
removed him from command after his inflammatory, egomaniacal
criticisms of America's containment policy.
Macon's Bill No. 2
An attempt to stop British
and French interference with American trade.
The Father of the Constitution
and the Bill of Rights and a co-founder of the Jeffersonian
Republican party, Madison served as president during the
War of 1812.
Spokesman for the Nation
of Islam, a black religious and political organization that
advocated black-owned businesses and castigated "white
devils." He achieved notoriety as a public speaker
and recruiter of boxer Muhammad Ali to the organization.
He left the Nation of Islam in 1964 to form the Organization
of Afro-American Unity in 1964, and was assassinated in
The secret government program
to develop an atomic bomb during World War II.
The early nineteenth century's
leading educational reformer, Mann led the fight for government
support for public schools in Massachusetts.
The freeing or emancipation
of chattel slaves by their owners, which became more common
in the upper South in the wake of so much talk during the
American Revolution about human liberty. George Washington
was among those planters who provided for the manumission
of his slaves after the death of his wife Martha.
Marbury v. Madison
This landmark 1803 Supreme
Court decision, which established the principle of judicial
review, marked the first time that the Court declared an
act of Congress unconstitutional.
Escaped slaves who formed
communities of runaways.
Marquis of Queensberry
Standardized boxing rules
of the late nineteenth century, creating structured three
minute rounds with one minute rest periods, outlawing wrestling
throws and holds, and specifying the number of rounds.
A massive foreign aid program
to Western Europe of $17 billion over four years, beginning
in 1948. Named after Secretary of State George Marshall,
the program restored economic prosperity to the region and
stabilized its system of democracy and capitalism.
Appointed Chief Justice
in 1801, Marshall expanded the Supreme Court's power and
prestige and established its power to determine the constitutionality
of the acts of other branches of government and to declare
unconstitutional acts null and void. He defended the supremacy
of the federal government over state governments and held
that the Constitution should be.construed broadly and flexibly.
Unlike European nations
that were male-based, or patrilineal, in organization, many
Native American societies structured tribal and family power
and authority through women. Quite often use rights to land
and personal property passed from mother to daughter, and
the eldest women chose male chiefs. Matrilineal societies
thus placed great importance on the capacities of women
to provide for the long-term welfare of their tribes.
McCullough v. Maryland
A landmark 1819 Supreme
Court decision establishing Congress's power to charter
a national bank and declaring unconstitutional a tax imposed
by Maryland on the bank's Baltimore branch.
An economic system built
on the assumption that the world's supply of wealth is fixed
and that nations must export more goods than they import
to assure a steady supply of gold and silver into national
coffers. Mercantile thinkers saw the inflow of such wealth
as the key to maintaining and enhancing national power and
self-sufficiency. Within this context, the accumulation
and development of colonies was of great importance, since
colonies could supply scarce raw materials to parent nations
and serve as markets for finished goods.
Black student who courageously
sought admission into all-white University of Mississippi
in 1962. His enrollment sparked a riot instigated by a white
mob that attacked federal marshals and national guard troops,
leaving 2 dead and 375 injured. Meredith attended the university
and eventually graduated.
A law passed after the South's
refusal to accept the Fourteenth Amendment in 1867, it nullified
existing state governments and divided the South into five
military districts - headed by military governors.
Also called "dynamic
conservatism," President Eisenhower's domestic agenda
advocated conservative spending approaches without drastically
cutting back New Deal social programs.
In this 1823 statement of
American foreign policy, President James Monroe declared
that the United States would not allow European powers to
create new colonies in the Western Hemisphere or to expand
the boundaries of existing colonies.
1758-1831. The fifth President
of the United States (1817-1825) during the era of Good
Feelings. His administration was marked by the acquisition
of Florida (1819), the Missouri Compromise (1820), in which
Missouri was declared a slave state, and the profession
of the Monroe Doctrine (1823), which declared U.S. opposition
to European interference in the Americas.
during the Progressive Era, they wrote sensational exposes
of social and political problems that helped spark the reform
movements of their day.
A reform faction of the
Republican party in the 1870s and 1880s, they crusaded for
honest and effective government and some supported Democratic
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