Link to Online Textbook Link to the Boisterous Sea of Liberty Link to Historic Court Cases Link to Historic Newspapers Link to Landmark Documents Link to Classroom Handouts Link to Lesson Plans Link to Resource Guides ink to E-lectures Link to Film Trailers Link to Flash Movies Link to Multimedia Exhibits Link to Ethnic America Link to Materials for Teachers Link to eXplorations Link to Learning Modules Link to Interactive Timeline Link to Games Database Link to A House Divided Link to America's Reconstruction Link to Virtual Exhibitions Link to Current Controversies Link to Ethnic America Link to Film and History Link to Historiography Link to Private Life Link to Science and Technology Link to the Reference Room Link to Writing Guides Link to Biographies Link to Book Talks Link to Chronologies Link to the Encyclopedia Link to Glossaries Link to the History Profession Link to Historical Images Link to Historical Maps Link to eXplorations Link to Do History through... Link to Multimedia Link to Historical Music Link to Museums & Archives Link to Historic Music Link to Historic Speeches Link to Historical Websites Link to Social History section


Back to Classroom-tested Lesson Plans and Handouts

Toward Revolution

Reading 1:

For fire and water are not more heterogeneous than the different colonies in North America. Nothing can exceed the jealousy and emulation which they possess in regard to each other....In short...were they left to themselves there would soon be a civil war from one end of the continent to the other, while the Indians and Negroes would...impatiently watch the opportunity of exterminating them all together.

Rev. Andrew Burnaby, 1760

Reading 2:

The revolution was effected before the war commenced. The revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people.

John Adams, 1818

Reading 3:

A colonist cannot make a button, a horseshoe, nor a hobnail, but some snootly ironmonger or respectable buttonmaker of England shall bawl and squall that his honor's worship is most egregiously maltreated, injured, cheated, and robbed by the rascally American republicans.

Boston Gazette, 1765

Reading 4:

We have called this a burthensome tax, because the duties are so numerous and high...that it would be totally impossible for the people to subsist under it....We further apprehend this tax to be unconstitutional. We have always understood it to be a grand and fundamental principle of the
constitution, that no freeman should be subject to any tax to which he has not given his own consent, in person or by proxy....We take it clearly, there fore, to be inconsistent with the spirit of the common law, and of the essential fundamental principle of the British constitution, that we should be represented in that assembly in any sense, unless it be by a fiction of law....

Resolution of the Town of Braintree, Massachusetts, 1765, opposing the Stamp Act

Reading 5:
If we view the whole of the conduct of the ministry and parliament, I do not see how any one can doubt but that there is a settled fix'd plan for enslaving the colonies, or bringing them under arbitrary government....If the ministry can secure a majority in parliament...they may rule as absolutely as they do in France or Spain, yea as in Turkey or India....

View now the situation of America: loaded with taxes from the British parliament, as heavy as she can possibly support under,--our lands charged with the most exorbitant quit rent,--these taxes collected by foreigners, steeled against any impressions from our groans or complaints...our
charters taken away--our assemblies annihilated,--governors and councils, appointed by royal authority without any concurrence of the people, enacting such laws as their sovereign pleasure shall dictate...the lives and property of Americans entirely at the disposal of officers more than three thousand miles removed from any power to control them--armies of the soldiers quartered among the inhabitants, who know the horrid purpose for which they are stationed, in the colonies--to subjugate and beat down the inhabitants....

Reverend Ebenezer Baldwin, 1774

Reading 6:
Considering the utter impracticability of their ever being fully and equally represented in parliament, and the great expense that must unavoidably attend even a partial representation there, this House thinks that a taxation of their constituents, even without their consent, grievous as it is, would be preferable to any representation that could be admitted for them there.

Circular letter, Massachusetts House of Representatives, 1768

Reading 7:

The New Englanders by their canting, whinings, insinuating tricks have persuaded the rest of the Colonies that the Government is going to make absolute slaves of them.

Nicholas Cresswell, a Tory, 1774

Reading 8:

I have heard it asserted by some, that as America hath flourished under her former connection with Great Britain, that the same connection is necessary toward her future happiness, and will always have the same effect. Nothing can be more fallacious than this kind of argument....

Not one third of the inhabitants, even of this province [Pennsylvania] are of English descent. Wherefore I reprobate the phrase of parent or mother country applied to England only, as being false, selfish, narrow and ungenerous....

The injuries and disadvantages we sustain by that connection are without number; and our duty to mankind at large, as well as to ourselves, instruct us to renounce the alliance: Because, any submission to, or dependence on Great Britain, tends directly to involve this continent in European wars and quarrels; and sets us at variance with nations, who would otherwise seek our friendship, and against whom, we have neither anger nor complaint. As Europe is our market for trade, we ought to form no partial connection with any part of it....

[Continued British rule will lead to] the ruin of the continent. And that for several reasons. First. The powers of governing still remaining in the hands of the king, he will have a negative over the whole legislation of this continent. And as he hath shown himself such an inveterate enemy to liberty, and discovered such a thirst for arbitrary power; is he, or is he not, a proper man to say to these colonies, "You shall make no laws but what I please"....Secondly. That as even the best terms, which we can expect to obtain, can amount to no more than a temporary expedient, or a kind of government by guardianship, which can last no longer than till the colonies come of age, so the general face and state of things, in the interim, will be unsettled and unpromising....

O ye that love mankind! Yet that dare oppose, not only tyranny, but the tyrant, stand forth! Every spot of the old world is overrun with oppression.

Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776

1. What do the quotations suggest were the fundamental causes of the American Revolution?

2. Describe the political and constitutional views of the colonists. What is their view of Parliament's right to tax the colonies?

3. Do you think colonists from different sections and different social classes share the same political ideas?

4. Would you describe the colonists' grievances as calm and carefully reasoned or as exaggerated and paranoid?

Colonial Society

Britain's New World Possessions, 1763 
New England   Massachusetts  246,000 
Connecticut  146,000 
New Hampshire  53,000 
Rhode Island   
Middle Colonies  Pennsylvania
(including Delaware)
New York  97,000 
New Jersey  61,000 
Southern Colonies  Virginia  346,000 
Maryland  164,000 
North Carolina  115,000 
South Carolina  95,000 
Georgia  6,000 
Canadian Colonies  Canada
(formerly New France)
Newfoundland  9,000 
Nova Scotia  8,000 
West Indies  Jamaica  210,000 
Barbados  88,000 
Antigua  35,000 
St. Kitts  25,000 
Bermuda   11,000 
Virgin Islands  7,000 
Bahamas  4,000 
  Others  56,000 

1. Which were the largest British colonies in 1760?

2. How did the 13 American colonies compare in size to Britain's other New World possessions?

3. Why do you think 13 of the colonies would band together in 1776 and declare independence-and not more or fewer?

Largest Cities in the American Colonies, 1760  

Philadelphia  19,000 
Boston  16,000 
New York  14,000 
Charleston, S.C.  8,000 
Newport, R.I.  7,000 
Marblehead, Mass.  5,000 
Salem, Mass.  4,000 

1. How many people lived in the colonies' three largest cities?

2. Why do you think the urban population was so low?

Ethnic Division of the Colonial Population, 1775
English  48.7 % 
African  20.0 %
Scot-Irish  7.8 %
German  6.9 % 
Scottish  6.6 % 
Dutch  2.7 % 
French  1.4 % 
Swedish  0.6 % 
Other  5.3 % 

1. What proportion of American colonists were of English descent in 1775?

2. What were the largest non-English ethnic groups in the colonies?

3. Why do you think that the colonies were able to create relatively peaceful multicultural societies?

Distribution of Wealth in Colonial America 

Proportion of wealth held by 














Chester, Pennsylvania 







Wealth per free person, 1774 (in pounds sterling) 
  Total Wealth  Slaves  Land  Other 
New England  33  0.02  28  5 
Mid-Atlantic Colonies  51  2  27  22 
South  132  58  55  19 

1. How evenly was wealth distributed in the American colonies, in your view? Was it more evenly distributed in urban or rural areas?

2. Was wealth growing more or less concentrated over time?

Churches by Denomination (1750) 
  Anglican  Baptist  Catholic  Congrega-
Lutheran  Presby-
Connecticut  19  12    155        1 
Massachusetts  17  16    233        8 
New Hampshire  1      40        5 
Rhode Island  7  30    12         
Delaware  14  2  1        3  27 
New Jersey  18  14  2  2  7  4  19  2 
New York  20  4  1  5  48  7  26  35 
(Quaker meetings not included)
19  29  11  7  64  11  56   
Georgia  3            2  1 
Maryland  50  4  15      4  3  18 
North Carolina  9  13          2  1 
South Carolina  16      4    4  5  9 
Virginia  96  3        5  5  17 
Total  289  132  30  465  79  90  138  233 

Growth of Churches, 1700-1780 
  1700  1780  1860 
Anglican (Episcopal)  111  406  2,100 
Baptist  33  457  12,100 
Catholic  22  56  2,550 
Congregational  146  742  2,200 
Dutch Reformed  26  127  n.a. 
German Reformed  0  201  1,100 
Lutheran  7  240  2,100 
Methodist  0 2,700  19,800 
Presbyterian  28  495  n.a. 
Quaker  0 350  725 

1. What were the largest religious denominations in the American colonies?

2. Which were the fastest growing?

Chronology: The American Revolution 
1763 Treaty of Paris  Ends Seven Years' War 
France Cedes Canada to England 
Proclamation of 1763 Bars settlement west of Appalachian Mountains 
1764  Sugar Act  Raises duties on imported sugar
Lowers duties on molasses
Increases power of vice-admiralty courts
1765  Stamp Act  Requires revenue raising stamps on printed documents
Stamp Act Congress
Quartering Act  Requires colonies to furnish British troops with housing and provisions 
1766  Declaratory Act  Asserts Parliament's sovereignty over colonies
Stamp Act repealed
1767  Townshend Revenue Acts Impose duties on glass paper, paint, and tea 
1768  British troops sent to Boston   
1770  Boston Massacre   
1773  Tea Act  Gives East India Company right to sell directly to Americans 
Boston Tea Party   
1774  Coercive Acts   Close port of Boston
Restrict government in Massachusetts
Quebec Act  Extends Canada's boundary to Ohio River; grants Catholics religious toleration  
First Continental Congress meets   
1775   Second Continental Congress meets   


This site was updated on 24-Apr-14.

Link to Ask the Hyperhistorian Link to Send Us Comments Link to Search & Site Map