A Virginia slave and blacksmith
who organized an attempted assault against Richmond in 1800.
Gallaudet, Thomas Hopkins
Founder of the nation's first
school to teach deaf mutes to read and write and communicate
through hand signals.
Garrison, William Lloyd
The leader of radical abolitionism,
Garrison sought immediate freedom for slaves without compensation
to their owners.
Republican residential candidate
in 1964, Goldwater spearheaded an emergent conservative drive
out of the South and West. Unhappy with the nation's path toward
liberalism, Goldwater called for more limited taxes, a reduction
in legislation aiding farmers and organized labor, and a reduction
of federal spending.
Good Neighbor Policy
During the administration of
President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the U.S. policy of not interfering
in the internal affairs of hemispheric neighbors.
The last leader of the Soviet
Union, Gorbachev adopted policies of glasnost (political liberalization)
and stroika (economic reform).
Gospel of Wealth
The belief that God ordains
certain people to amass money and use it to further God's purposes,
it justified the concentration of wealth as long as the rich
used their money responsibly.
In World War II, the alliance
between the United States, Great Britain, and France.
Spilling over into the colonies
from a wave of revivals in Europe, the Awakening placed renewed
emphasis on vital religious faith, partially in reaction to
more secular, rationalist thinking characterizing the Enlightenment.
Beginning as scattered revivals in the 1720s, the Awakening
grew into a fully developed outpouring of rejuvenated faith
by the 1740s. Key figures included Jonathan Edwards and George
Whitefield. The Awakening's legacy included more emphasis on
personal choice, as opposed to state mandates about worship,
in matters of religious faith.
The mass movement of African
Americans from the South to the North during World War I.
The liberal reform program of
President Lyndon Johnson. The program included civil rights
legislation, increased public spending to help the poor, Medicare
and Medicaid programs, educational legislation, and liberalized
A political party founded in
1874 to promote the issuance of legal tender paper currency
not backed by precious metals in order to inflate the money
supply and relieve the suffering of people hurt by the era's
deflation, most of its members merged with the Populist party.
To help fund the military forces
used against the Confederacy during the Civil War, the federal
Congress issued a paper currency known as greenbacks. Even though
greenbacks had no backing in specie (hard currency), this currency
held its value fairly well because of mounting confidence the
Union would prevail in the war. See also specie.
Grimke, Angelina, and Sarah
Born to a wealthy South Carolina
slaveholding family, these sisters became leaders in the abolitionist
and women's rights movements.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Following two reported attacks
on the U.S.S. Maddox in 1964, American president Lyndon B. Johnson
asked for and received this authorization from Congress to "take
all necessary measures" to repel attacks, prevent aggression,
and protect American security. It allowed Johnson to act without
Congressional authorization on military matters in Vietnam.
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Realizing that many children
of the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first generation were not
actively seeking God's saving grace and full church membership,
the question was how to keep the next generation of children
active in church affairs. The solution, agreed to in 1662, was
to permit the baptism of children and grandchildren of professing
saints, thereby according them half-way membership. Full church
membership still would come only after individuals testified
to a conversion experience. This compromise on standards of
membership was seen as a sign of declension. See declension.
The first secretary of the treasury
and a leader of the Federalist party. As secretary of the treasury,
he devised a plan for repaying the nation's debts and promoting
economic growth. This plan included funding and assumption of
the national and state debts at face value, establishment of
the Bank of the United States, and tariffs on imported goods.
Hamilton died following a duel with Aaron Burr in 1804.
Self-conscious African American
cultural, literary, and artistic movement centered in Harlem
in New York City during the 1920s.
Convention held in late 1814
and early 1815 by New Englanders opposed to the War of 1812,
which recommended Constitutional amendments to weaken the power
of the South and to restrict Congress's power to impose embargoes
or declare war.
Haymarket Square Riot
A violent encounter between
police and protesters in 1886 in Chicago, which led to the execution
of four protest leaders, it scared the public with the specter
of labor violence and demonstrated governments' support of industrialists
As an economic incentive to
encourage English to settle in Virginia and other English colonies
during the seventeenth century, sponsoring parties would offer
50 acres of land per person to those who migrated or who paid
for the passage of others willing to migrate to America. Because
of Virginia's high death rate and difficult living conditions,
headrights functioned as an inducement to help bolster the colony's
low settlement rate.
Helper, Hinton Rowan
The North Carolina-born author
of The Impending Crisis of the South, a book that argued
that slavery was incompatible with economic progress.
Six German principalities provided
30,000 soldiers to Great Britain to fight against the American
rebels during the War for Independence. More than half of these
troops-for-hire came from Hesse-Cassel. Hessian thus would serve
as the generic term for all German mercenaries fighting in the
war, whether or not they came from Hesse-Cassel.
Tolerance of religious diversity
was at the core of William Penn's vision for a colony in America.
As such, the colony of Pennsylvania represented a "holy
experiment" for Penn. He encouraged people of all faiths
to live together in harmony and to maintain harmonious relations
with Native Americans in the region. The residents of early
Pennsylvania never fully embraced Penn's vision, but the colony
was open to religious dissenters and became a model for the
diversity that later characterized America.
Herbert Hoover's program as
director of the Food Administration to conserve food during
World War I.
Shanty towns of the Great Depression,
named after President Herbert Hoover.
House Un-American Activities
This House of Representatives
committee investigated subversive right- and left-wing movements.
During the Cold War, it was best known for its two investigations
of the American film industry.
Howe, Samuel Gridley
Founder of the nation's first
school for the blind.
Hudson Highlands Strategy
The British tried to execute
this strategy early in the War for American Independence but
never successfully implemented it. The idea was to gain control
of the Hudson River-Lake Champlain corridor running north from
New York City and south from Montreal, Canada. Had they done
so, the effect would have been to cut off New England, the initial
center of rebellion, from the rest of the colonies. New England
could then have been reconquered in detail. The failure to coordinate
the movements of British forces in 1776 and 1777 resulted in
the capture of John Burgoyne's army at Saratoga, New York, in
October, which ended any attempt to snuff out the rebellion
by retaking New England.
Defined by historian Donald
Worster as "a social order based on the intensive manipulation
of water and its products in an arid setting," it characterized
the irrigated societies of the modern West, allowing for agricultural
productivity and a massive demographic shift westward.
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The view that the national government's
powers are not limited to those stated explicitly in the U.S.
The British practice of seizing
seamen from American merchant ships and forcing them to serve
in the British navy. Impressment was one of the causes of the
War of 1812.
Imprisonment for Debt
During the early nineteenth
century, reformers succeeded in restricting imprisonment of
In an effort to entice English
subjects to the colonies, parties would offer legal bonded contracts
that would exchange the cost of passage across the Atlantic
for up to seven years of labor in America. Indenture contracts
also required masters to provide food, clothing, farm tools,
and sometimes land when the term of bonded service had expired,
thus allowing former servants the opportunity to gain full economic
independence in America.
Redemption certificates pardoning
persons from punishment in the afterlife that were being sold
by the Roman Catholic church. Martin Luther particularly condemned
this practice in his Ninety-five Theses, in bringing
on the Protestant Reformation.
The Influence of Sea Power
1890 book by Alfred Thayer Mahan
that argued nations expand their world power through foreign
commerce and a strong navy. Strongly influenced American politicians
who advocated expansion.
A procedure that allows citizens
to propose legislation through petitions, it was passed by numerous
states at the turn of the century but rarely used until the
The legal principle that a criminal
act should only be punished if the offender was fully capable
of distinguishing right from wrong.
Interstate Commerce Commission
The first federal regulatory
agency, established by passage of the Interstate Commerce Act
in 1887 to regulate the railroads. The ICC's powers were expanded
to oversee other forms of transportation and communication.
Iranian Hostage Crisis
In November 1979, Iranian students
seized the U.S. embassy compound in Tehran and held 52 Americans
inside hostage for 444 days.
As major general during the
War of 1812, he defeated the Creek Indians at the Battle of
Horseshoe Bend and a British army at the Battle of New Orleans.
In 1818, he led an American incursion into Spanish-held Florida.
He served as seventh president of the United States from 1829
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Musical style based on improvisation
within a band format, combining African traditions of repetition,
call and response, and strong beat with European structure.
The primary author of the Declaration
of Independence, the first secretary of state, and the third
president of the United States. As president, he was responsible
for the Louisiana Purchase and the Embargo of 1807, which sought
to end British and French interference with American shipping.
This appellation was used to
refer to common soldiers serving in Confederate armies during
the Civil War. See Billy
Joint Stock Trading Companies
These companies were given the
right to develop trade between England and certain geographic
regions, such as Russia or India. Investors would pool their
capital, in return for shares of stock, to underwrite trading
ventures. One such company, the Virginia Company, failed to
secure profits for its investors but laid the basis for the
first major English colony in the Americas.
The power of the courts to determine
the constitutionality of acts of other branches of government
and to declare unconstitutional acts null and void.
Judiciary Act of 1801
Passed by the Federalists after
they had lost control of Congress in the election of 1800, the
act reduced the size of the Supreme Court, created a new set
of circuit courts, and increased the number of district court
judges. The Jeffersonian Republicans repealed the act in 1801.
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Kaiser, Henry J.
Industrialist who epitomized
the close relationship between government and industry in the
West. His shipyards, financed by government loans and bolstered
by cost-plus government contracts, employed close to 300,000
Controversial 1854 legislation
that opened Kansas and Nebraska to white settlement, repealed
the Compromise of 1820, and led opponents to form the Republican
After an early public life as
a committed Cold Warrior, Kennedy ran for the Democratic nomination
in 1968 as a peace candidate representative of young liberals.
His assassination while on the campaign trail helped create
the disenchantment of many young Americans with the political
Personable Soviet premier during
Eisenhower's presidential term. Khrushchev condemned Stalin's
purges and welcomed a melting of the Cold War, although he crushed
a 1956 democratic uprising in Hungary.
The national security advisor
to President Nixon, the Harvard-educated German Jewish immigrant
was a staunch anti-Communist. He was Nixon's closest associate
on matters of foreign policy.
Knights of Labor
A labor organization founded
in 1869, it called for the unity of all workers, rejected industrial
capitalism, and favored cooperatively owned businesses but was
discredited by such labor violence as the Haymarket Square riot
and did not survive the depression of the 1890s.
Know Nothing Party
An anti-foreign, anti-Catholic
political party that arose following massive Irish and Catholic
immigration during the late 1840s. The Know Nothing party replaced
the Whigs as the second largest party in New England and some
other states between 1853 and 1856.
Ku Klux Klan
A secret organization founded
in the southern states during Reconstruction to terrorize and
intimidate former slaves and prevent them from voting or holding
public office. Officially disbanded in 1869, a second anti-black,
anti-Catholic, and anti-Semitic Klan emerged in 1915 that aimed
to preserve "Americanism."
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An economic theory based upon
the ideas of Adam Smith, it contended that in a free economy
self-interest would lead individuals to act in ways that benefited
society as a whole and therefore government should not intervene.
Bold foreign policy put forth
by Henry Cabot Lodge and others, advocating a canal through
the Central American isthmus and a strong American naval presence
in the Caribbean and Pacific.
League of Nations
Point Fourteen of Wilson's Fourteen
Points, the proposal to establish an international organization
to guarantee the territorial integrity of independent nations.
The program by which the United
States provided arms and supplies to the Allies in World War
II before joining the fighting.
An antislavery political party
founded in 1839.
Rising to power in Hawaii in
1891, she initiated a strong anti-American policy. Her overthrow
in 1893 by white islanders paved the way for ultimate American
annexation in 1897.
Little Rock Crisis
Conflict in 1957 when governor
Orval Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent the
racial integration of Little Rock's Central High School. After
a crucial delay, President Eisenhower federalized the National
Guard troops and sent in 1000 paratroopers to foster the school's
The view that the national government
has the power to create agencies or enact statutes to fulfill
the powers granted by the U.S. Constitution.
The leader of the Haitian Revolution.
This informal group of pro-colonial
rights leaders in Boston helped organize resistance against
unwanted British policies, such as the Stamp Act. Working with
more visible popular leaders like Samuel Adams and street leaders
like Ebenezer Mackintosh, the Loyal Nine both planned and gave
overall direction to controlled violent protests in defying
the imperial will and protecting the community's interests in
Boston during the 1760s.
British ship carrying American
passengers sunk by a German submarine on May 15, 1915.
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MacArthur, General Douglas
Bold, arrogant American general
celebrated for his successful amphibious invasion at Inchon,
on North Korean forces' rear. MacArthur's subsequent invasion
into North Korea stalled, and President Truman removed him from
command after his inflammatory, egomaniacal criticisms of America's
Macon's Bill No. 2
An attempt to stop British and
French interference with American trade.
The Father of the Constitution
and the Bill of Rights and a co-founder of the Jeffersonian
Republican party, Madison served as president during the War
Spokesman for the Nation of
Islam, a black religious and political organization that advocated
black-owned businesses and castigated "white devils."
He achieved notoriety as a public speaker and recruiter of boxer
Muhammad Ali to the organization. He left the Nation of Islam
in 1964 to form the Organization of Afro-American Unity in 1964,
and was assassinated in 1965.
The secret government program
to develop an atomic bomb during World War II.
The early nineteenth century's
leading educational reformer, Mann led the fight for government
support for public schools in Massachusetts.
The freeing or emancipation
of chattel slaves by their owners, which became more common
in the upper South in the wake of so much talk during the American
Revolution about human liberty. George Washington was among
those planters who provided for the manumission of his slaves
after the death of his wife Martha.
Marbury v. Madison
This landmark 1803 Supreme Court
decision, which established the principle of judicial review,
marked the first time that the Court declared an act of Congress
Escaped slaves who formed communities
Marquis of Queensberry Rules
Standardized boxing rules of
the late nineteenth century, creating structured three minute
rounds with one minute rest periods, outlawing wrestling throws
and holds, and specifying the number of rounds.
A massive foreign aid program
to Western Europe of $17 billion over four years, beginning
in 1948. Named after Secretary of State George Marshall, the
program restored economic prosperity to the region and stabilized
its system of democracy and capitalism.
Appointed Chief Justice in 1801,
Marshall expanded the Supreme Court's power and prestige and
established its power to determine the constitutionality of
the acts of other branches of government and to declare unconstitutional
acts null and void. He defended the supremacy of the federal
government over state governments and held that the Constitution
should be.construed broadly and flexibly.
Unlike European nations that
were male-based, or patrilineal, in organization, many Native
American societies structured tribal and family power and authority
through women. Quite often use rights to land and personal property
passed from mother to daughter, and the eldest women chose male
chiefs. Matrilineal societies thus placed great importance on
the capacities of women to provide for the long-term welfare
of their tribes.
McCullough v. Maryland
A landmark 1819 Supreme Court
decision establishing Congress's power to charter a national
bank and declaring unconstitutional a tax imposed by Maryland
on the bank's Baltimore branch.
An economic system built on
the assumption that the world's supply of wealth is fixed and
that nations must export more goods than they import to assure
a steady supply of gold and silver into national coffers. Mercantile
thinkers saw the inflow of such wealth as the key to maintaining
and enhancing national power and self-sufficiency. Within this
context, the accumulation and development of colonies was of
great importance, since colonies could supply scarce raw materials
to parent nations and serve as markets for finished goods.
Black student who courageously
sought admission into all-white University of Mississippi in
1962. His enrollment sparked a riot instigated by a white mob
that attacked federal marshals and national guard troops, leaving
2 dead and 375 injured. Meredith attended the university and
Military Reconstruction Act
A law passed after the South's
refusal to accept the Fourteenth Amendment in 1867, it nullified
existing state governments and divided the South into five military
districts - headed by military governors.
Also called "dynamic conservatism,"
President Eisenhower's domestic agenda advocated conservative
spending approaches without drastically cutting back New Deal
In this 1823 statement of American
foreign policy, President James Monroe declared that the United
States would not allow European powers to create new colonies
in the Western Hemisphere or to expand the boundaries of existing
1758-1831. The fifth President
of the United States (1817-1825) during the era of Good Feelings.
His administration was marked by the acquisition of Florida
(1819), the Missouri Compromise (1820), in which Missouri was
declared a slave state, and the profession of the Monroe Doctrine
(1823), which declared U.S. opposition to European interference
in the Americas.
Investigative journalists during
the Progressive Era, they wrote sensational exposes of social
and political problems that helped spark the reform movements
of their day.
A reform faction of the Republican
party in the 1870s and 1880s, they crusaded for honest and effective
government and some supported Democratic reform candidates.
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