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Back to Hollywood's America

Film Genre

General Works

  • Altman, Rick. Film/Genre. London: BFI Publishing, 1999.
  • Browne, Nick, ed. Refiguring American Film Genres: History and Theory. Berkeley: University of California, 1998.
  • Cawelti, John G. Adventure, Mystery, and Romance: Formula Stories as Art and Popular Culture. Chicago: Chicago, 1976.
  • Coates, Paul. Film at the Intersection of High and Mass Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1994.
  • Dixon, Wheeler Winston. Film Genre 2000: New Critical Essays. Albany: State University of New York, 2000.
  • Gehring, Wes D. Handbook of American Film Genres. New York: Greenwood, 1988.
  • Grant, Barry Keith. Film Genre Reader. Austin: Texas, 1986.
  • Grodal, Torben Kragh. Moving Pictures: A New Theory of Film Genres, Feelings, and Cognition. Oxford: Clarendon, 1997.
  • Landy, Marcia. British Genres: Cinema and Society, 1930-1960. Princeton: Princeton University, 1991.
  • Lopez, Daniel. Films By Genre. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1993.
  • Neale, Stephen. Genre. London: BFI, 1980.
  • Reed, Joseph W. American Scenarios: The Uses of Film Genre. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University, 1989.
  • Schatz, Thomas. Hollywood Genres. New York: Random House, 1980.

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Adventure Films

  • Arroyo Jose, ed. Action/Spectacle Cinema: A Sight and Sound Reader. London: BFI, 2000.
  • Hofstede, David. Hollywood's Heroes. Lanham: Madison, 1994.
  • Tasker, Yvonne. Spectacular Bodies: Gender, Genre, and the Action Cinema. London: Routledge, 1993.
  • Taves, Brian. The Romance of Adventure: The Genre of Historical Adventure Movies. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1993.

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  • Beck, Jerry. Warner Bros. Animation Art. London: Virgin, 1998.
  • Bendazzi, Giannalberto. Cartoons: One Hundred Years of Cinema Animation. London: Libbey, 1994.
  • Cholodenko. The Illusion of Life: Essays on Animation. Sydney: Power, 1991.
  • Cohen, Karl F. Forbidden Animation: Censored Cartoons and Blacklisted Animators in America. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1997.
  • Crafton, Donald. Before Mickey: The Animated Film, 1898-1928. Chicago: Chicago, 1993.
  • Furniss, Maureen. Art in Motion: Animation Aesthetics. London: John Libbey, 1998.
  • Gifford, Denis. American Animated Films: The Silent Era, 1897-1929. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1990.
  • Kanfer, Stefan. Serious Business: The Art and Commerce of Animation in America. New York: Scribner, 1997.
  • Klein, Norman M.  Seven Minutes: The Life and Death of the American Animated Cartoon. London: Verso, 1993.
  • Levi, Antonia. Samurai from Outer Space: Understanding Japanese Animation. Chicago: Open Court, 1996.
  • Lotman, Jeff. Animation Art: The Early Years, 1911-1953. Atglen, Pa.: Schiffer, 1995.
  • McCarthy, Helen. The Abnime! Movie Guide. London: Titan, 1996.
  • Merritt, Russell. Walt in Wonderland: The Silent Films of Walt Disney. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1993.
  • Sampson, Henry T.  That's Enough, Folks: Black Images in Animated Cartoons, 1900-1960. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1998.
  • Smoodin, Eric Loren. Animating Culture: Hollywood Cartoons from the Sound Era. New Brunswick: Rutgers, 1993.
  • Thomas, Bob. Disney's Art of Animation. New York: Hyperion, 1991.
  • Thomas, Frank and Ollie Johnston. The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation. New York: Hyperion, 1995.
  • Wells, Paul. Understanding Animation. London: Routledge, 1998.

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Avant-Garde and Experimental Film

  • Broadhurst, Susan. Liminal Acts: A Critical Overview of Contemporary Performance and Theory. London: Cassell, 1999.
  • Dixon, Wheeler W. The Exploding Eye: A Re-Visionary History of 1960s American Experimental Cinema. Albany: SUNY, 1997.
  • Hawkins, Joan. Cutting Edge: Art-Horror and the Horrific Avant-Garde. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2000.
  • Horak, Jan-Christopher. Lovers of Cinema: The First American Film Avant-Garde, 1919-1945. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1995.
  • Levy, Emanuel. Cinema of Outsiders: The Rise of American Independent Film. New York: New York University, 1999.
  • MacDonald, Scott. Avant-Garde Film: Motion Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge, 1993.
  • Mellencamp, Patricia. Indiscretions: Avant-Garde Film, Video & Feminism. Bloomington: Indiana, 1990.
  • Peterson, James. Dreams of Chaos, Visions of Order: Understanding the American Avant-Garde Cinema. Detroit: Wayne State, 1994.
  • Sitney, P. Adams. Modernist Montage: The Obscurity of Vision in Cinema and Literature. New York: Columbia, 1990.
  • Small, Edward S. Direct Theory: Experimental Film/Video as Major Genre. Carbondale: Southern Illinois, 1994.
  • Sterritt, David. Mad to Be Saved: The Beats, the '50s, and Film. Carbondale: Southern Illinois, 1998.
  • Suarez, Juan Antonio. Bike Boys, Drag Queens & Superstars: Avant-Garde, Mass Culture, and Gay Identities in the 1960s Underground Cinema. Bloomington: Indiana, 1996.
  • Testa, Bart. Back and Forth: Early Cinema and the Avant-Garde. Toroton: Art Museum of Ontario, 1992.
  • Wees, William C. Light Moving in Time: Studies in the Visual Aesthetics of Avant-Garde Film. Berkeley: California, 1992.
  • Wilinsky, Barbara. Sure Seaters: The Emergence of Art House Cinema. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2001.

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Biblical Films

  • Babington, Bruce and Peter William Evans. Biblical Epics: Sacred Narrative in the Hollywood Cinema. Manchester: Manchester, 1993.
  • Exum, J. Cheryl. Plotted, Shot, and Painted: Cultural Representations of Biblical Women. Sheffield: Sheffield, 1996.
  • Kreitzer, L. Joseph. The New Testament in Fiction and Film. Sheffield: JSOT, 1993.
  • Kreitzer, L. Joseph. The Old Testament in Fiction and Film. Sheffield: JSOT, 1994.
  • Kreitzer, L. Joseph. Pauline Images in Fiction and Film. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999.

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Biographical Films

  • Custen, George Frederick. Bio/Pics: How Hollywood Constructed Public History. New Brunswick: Rutgers University, 1992.

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College Life in Film

  • Hinton, David B. Celluloid Ivy: Higher Education in the Movies. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1994.

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  • Miller, Blair. American Silent Film Comedies. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1995.

History, Theory, and Interpretation

  • Burton, Alan, and Laraine Porter, eds. Pimple, Pranks & Pratfalls: British Comedy Before 1930. Wiltshire: Flicks Books, 2000.
  • Gehring, Wes D. American Dark Comedy: Beyond Satire. Westport: Greenwood, 1996.
  • Gehring, Wes. D. Parody as Film Genre: “Never Give a Saga An Even Break.” Westport: Greenwood, 1999.
  • Gehring, Wes D. Personality Comedians as Genre: Selected Players. Westport: Greenwood, 1997.
  • Horton, Andrew. Comedy/Cinema/Theory. Berkeley: California, 1991.
  • Horton, Andrew. Inside Soviet Film Satire. Cambridge: Cambridge, 1993.
  • Horton, Andrew. Laughing Out Loud: Writing the Comedy-Centered Screenplay. Berkeley: University of California, 2000.
  • Jenkins, Henry. What Made Pistachio Nuts? Early Sound Comedy and the Vaudeville Aesthetic. New York: Columbia, 1992.
  • Karnick, Kristine Brunovska and Henry Jenkins. Classical Hollywood Comedy. New York: Routledge, 1995.
  • McCaffrey, Donald W. Assault on Society: Satirical Literature to Film. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1992.
  • MacCann, Richard Dyer. The Silent Comedians. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1993.
  • Miller, Blair. American Silent Film Comedies. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1995.
  • Neale, Stephen and Frank Krutnik. Popular Film and Television Comedy. London: Routledge, 1990.
  • Rowe, Kathleen. The Unruly Woman: Gender and the Genres of Laughter. Austin: Texas, 1995.
  • Paul, William. Laughing, Screaming: Modern Hollywood Horror and Comedy. New York: Columbia, 1994.
  • Sanders, Jonathan. Another Fine Dress: Role-Play in the Films of Laurel and Hardy. London: Cassell, 1995.
  • Sennett, Ted. Laughing in the Dark: Movie Comedy from Groucho to Woody. New York: St. Martin's, 1992.
  • Sikov, Ed. Laughing Historically: American Screen Comedy of the 1950s. New York: Columbia, 1994.
  • Weales, Gerald. Canned Goods as Caviar: American Film Comedy of the 1930s. Chicago: Chicago, 1985.
  • Winokur, Mark. American Laughter: Immigrants, Ethnicity and 1930s Hollywood Film Comedy. Houndmills: Macmillan, 1996.

Romantic Comedy

  • Babington, Bruce and Peter William Evans. Affairs to Remember: The Hollywood Comedy of the Sexes. New York: St. Martin's, 1989.
  • Cavell, Stanley. Pursuits of Happiness: The Hollywood Comedy of Remarriage. Cambridge: Harvard, 1981.
  • Harvey, John. Romantic Comedy in Hollywood from Lubitsch to Sturgis. New York: Knopf, 1987.
  • Kendall, Elizabeth. The Runaway Bride: Hollywood Romantic Comedy of the 1930's. New York: Knopf, 1990.
  • Rubinfeld, Mark D.  Bound to Bond: Gender, Genre, and the Hollywood Romantic Comedy. Westport: Praeger, 2001.

Screwball Comedy

  • Byrge, Duane and Robert Milton Miller. The Screwball Comedy Films: A History and Filmography. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1991.
  • Gehring, Wes D. Screwball Comedy. Westport: Greenwood, 1986.


  • Langman, Larry and Paul Gold. Comedy Quotes from the Movies. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1993.


  • Variety Comedy Movies: Illustrated Reviews of the Classic Films. London: Hamlyn, 1992.

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Crime Films

  • Chibnall, Steve, and Robert Murphy, ed. British Crime Cinema. London: Routledge, 1999.
  • Hardy, Phil, ed. Overlook Film Encyclopedia: The Gangster Film. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, 1998.
  • Langman, Larry and Daniel Finn. A Guide to American Crime Films of the Forties and Fifties. Westport: Greenwood, 1995.
  • Langman, Larry and Daniel Finn. A Guide to American Crime Films of the Thirties. Westport: Greenwood, 1995.
  • Langman, Larry and Daniel Finn. A Guide to American Silent Crime Films. Westport: Greenwood, 1994.
  • McCarty, John. Hollywood Gangland. New York: St. Martin's, 1993.
  • Munby, Jonathan. Public Enemies, Public Heroes: Screening the Gangster from Little Caesar to Touch of Evil. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1999.
  • Parish, James Robert. Great Cop Pictures. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1990.
  • Rafter, Nicole Hahn. Shots in the Mirror: Crime Films and Society. Oxford: Oxford University, 2000.
  • Rosow, Eugene. Born to Lose: The Gangster Film in America. New York: Oxford, 1978.
  • Shadoian, Jack. Dreams and Dead Ends: The American Gangster/Crime Film. Cambridge: MIT, 1977
  • Stempridge, Gerard. Ordinary Decent Criminal. London: Headline, 1999.
  • Stephens, Michael L. Gangster Films. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1996.
  • Vahimagi, Tise. The Untouchables. London: British Film Institute, 1998.
  • Yaquinto, Marilyn. Pump 'Em Full of Lead: A Look at Gangsters on Film. New York: Twayne, 1998.

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Cult Movies

  • Mendik, Xavier, and Graeme Harper. Unruly Pleasures: The Cult Film and Its Critics. Guildford: FAB, 2000.
  • Peary, Danny. Cult Movies: The Classics, the Sleepers, the Weird, and the Wonderful. New York: Gramercy Books, 1998.

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  • Reynolds, William and Elizabeth A. Trembley. It's a Print!: Detective Fiction from Page to Screen. Bowling Green: Bowling Green, 1994.

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Documentary Film

  • Aitken, Ian, ed. The Documentary Film Movement: An Anthology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University, 1998.
  • Bakker, Kees, ed. Joris Ivens and the Documentary Context. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University, 1999.
  • Barnouw, Erik. Documentary: A History of the Non-Fiction Film. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford, 1993.
  • Barsam, Richard Meran. Nonfiction Film: A Critical History. Bloomington: Indiana, 1992.
  • Bruzzi, Stella. New Documentary: A Critical Introduction. London: Routledge, 2000.
  • Crusie, Jennifer. Welcome to Temptation. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000.
  • Ellis, Jack C.  John Grierson: Life, Contributions, Influence. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University, 2000.
  • Gaines, Jane M., and Michael Renov, eds. Collecting Visible Evidence. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1999.
  • Grant, Barry Keith. Voyages of Discovery: The Cinema of Frederick Wiseman. Urbana: Illinois, 1991.
  • Grant, Barry Keith and Jeannette Sloniowski. Documentary the Documentary: Close Readings of Documentary Film and Video. Detroit: Wayne State, 1998.
  • Gwynn, William Howard. A Cinema of Nonfiction. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson, 1990.
  • Klotman, Phyllis R., and Janet K. Cutler, eds. Struggles for Representation: African American Documentary Film and Video. Bloomington: Indiana University, 1999.
  • Leuthold, Steven. Indigenous Aesthetics: Native Art, Media, and Identity. Austin: University of Texas, 1998.
  • MacDonald, Kevin and Mark Cousins. Imagining Reality: The Faber Book of the Documentary. London: Faber and Faber, 1996.
  • MacDougall, David, ed. Transcultural Cinema. Princeton: Princeton University, 1998.
  • Moscovitch, Arlene. Constructing Reality: Exploring Media Issues in Documentary. Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 1993.
  • Nichols, Bill. Representing Reality: Issues and Concepts in Documentary. Bloomington: Indiana, 1991.
  • Plantinga, Carl R. Rhetoric and Representation in Nonfiction Film. Cambridge: Cambridge, 1997.
  • Ponech, Trevor. What is Non-Fiction Cinema? Boulder: Westview Press, 1999.
  • Renov, Michael. Theorizing Documentary. New York: Routledge, 1993.
  • Roberts, Graham. Forward Soviet! History and Non-Fiction Film in the USSR. London; I.B. Tauris, 1999.
  • Rothman, William. Documentary Film Classics. Cambridge: Cambridge, 1997.
  • Russell, Catherine. Experimental Ethnography: The Work of Film in the Age of Video. Durham: Duke University, 1999.
  • Sherman, Sharon R. Documenting Ourselves: Film, Video, and Culture. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1998.
  • Tobias, Michael, ed.  The Search for Reality: The Art of Documentary Filmmaking. Studio City, CA: Michael Wiese Productions, 1998.
  • Vaughn, Dai. For Documentary. Berkeley: University of California, 1999.
  • Waldman, Diane, and Janet Walker, eds. Feminism and Documentary. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1999.
  • Warren, Charles. Beyond Document: Essays on Nonfiction Film. Middletown: Wesleyan, 1996.
  • Winston, Brian. Claiming the Real: The Griersonian Documentary and Its Legitimations. London: BFI, 1995.
  • Winston, Brian. “Fires Were Started.” London: British Film Institute, 1999.
  • Zimmermann, Patricia Rodden. States of Emergency: Documentaries, Wars, Democracies. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2000.

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Ethnographic Film

  • Barbash, Ilisa. Cross-Cultural Filmmaking. Berkeley: California, 1997.
  • Crawford, Peter Ian and David Turton. Film as Ethnography. Manchester: Manchester, 1992.
  • Devereaux, Leslie and Roger Hillman. Fields of Vision: Essays in Film Studies, Visual Anthropology, and Photography. Berkeley: California, 1995.
  • Heider, Karl G. Seeing Anthropology: Cultural Anthropology Through Film. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1997.
  • Husmann, Rolf et al. Bibiliography of Ethnographic Films. Gottingen: Lit, 1992.
  • Loizos, Peter. Innovations in Ethnographic Film: From Innocence to Self-Consciousness. Manchester: Manchester, 1993.
  • MacDougall, David. Transcultural Cinema. Princeton: Princeton, 1999.
  • Nichols, Bill. Blurred Boundaries: Questions of Meaning in Contemporary Culture. Bloomington: Indiana, 1994.
  • Rollwagen, Jack R. Anthropological Film and Video in the 1990s. Brockport: Institute, 1993.
  • Rony, Fatimah Tobing. The Third Eye: Race, Cinema, and Ethnographic Spectacle. Durham: Duke, 1996.

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Film Noir


  • Meyer, David N. A Girl and a Gun: The Complete Guide to Film Noir on Video. New York: Avon Books, 1998.

History and Interpretation

  • Buss, Robin. French Film Noir. London: M. Boyars, 1994.
  • Cameron, Ian. Book of Film Noir. New York: Continuum, 1993.
  • Cameron, Ian. Movie Book of Film Noir. London: Studio Vista, 1992.
  • Christopher, Nicholas. Somewhere in the Night: Film Noir and the American City. New York: Free Press, 1997.
  • Copjec, Joan. Shades of Noir. London: Verso, 1993.
  • Gifford, Barry. Out of the Past: Adventures in Film Noir. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2000.
  • Hannsberry, Karen Burroughs. Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1998.
  • Kitses, Jim. Gun Crazy. London: BFI, 1996.
  • Krutnik, Frank. In a Lonely Street: Film Noir, Genre, Masculinity. London: Routledge, 1991.
  • Marling, William. The American Roman Noir: Hammett, Cain, and Chandler. Athens: Georgia, 1995.
  • Martin, Richard. Mean Streets and Raging Bulls: The Legacy of Film Noir in Contemporary American Cinema. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1997.
  • Maxfield, James F. The Fatal Woman: Sources of Male Anxiety in American Film Noir, 1941-1991. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson, 1996.
  • Muller, Eddie. Dark City: The Lost World of Film Noir. London: Titan, 1998.
  • Naremore, James. More Than Night: Film Noir in its Contexts. Berkeley: California, 1998.
  • Palmer, R. Barton. Hollywood's Dark Cinema: The American Film Noir. New York: Twayne, 1994.
  • Palmer, R. Barton. Perspectives on Film Noir. New York: G.K. Hall, 1996.
  • Richardson, Carl. Autopsy: An Element of Realism in Film Noir. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1992.
  • Silver, Alain and Elizabeth Ward. Film Noir. 3rd ed. Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook, 1992.
  • Stephens, Michael L. Film Noir. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1995.

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Historical Films

  • Barta, Tony. Screening the Past: Film and the Representation of History. Westport: Praeger, 1998.
  • Burgoyne, Robert. Film Nation: Hollywood Looks at U.S. History. Minneapolis: Minnesota, 1997.
  • Cameron, Kenneth M. America on Film: Hollywood and American History. New York: Continuum, 1997.
  • Carnes, Marc C. Past Imperfect: History According to the Movies. New York: H. Holt. 1995.
  • Davis, Natalie Zemon. Slaves on Screen: Film and Historical Vision. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 2000.
  • Ellwood, David, ed.  The Movies as History: Visions of the Twentieth Century. Stroud: Sutton, 2000.
  • Grindon, Leger. Shadows on the Past: Studies in the Historical Fiction Film. Philadelphia: Temple, 1994.
  • Landy, Marcia. Cinematic Uses of the Past. Minneapolis: Minnesota, 1996.
  • Landy, Marcia, ed. Historical Film: History and Memory in Media. New Brunswick: Rutgers University, 2001.
  • Marsden, Michael T. et al. Movies as Artifacts. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1982.
  • O'Connor, John E. Image as Artifact: The Historical Analysis of Film and Television. Malabar: R.E. Krieger, 1990.
  • O'Connor, John E. and Martin A. Jackson, eds. American History/American Film: Interpreting the Hollywood Image. New York: Ungar, 1979.
  • Osterberg, Bertil O.  Colonial America on Film and Television: A Filmography. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2001.
  • Rollins, Peter. Hollywood as Historian: American Film in a Cultural Context. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1983.
  • Roquemore, Joseph H.  History Goes to the Movies: A Viewer’s Guide. New York: Main Street Books, 1999.
  • Rosenstone, Robert A. Revisioning History: Film and the Construction of a New Past. Princeton: Princeton, 1995.
  • Rosenstone, Robert A. Visions of the Past: The Challenge of Film to Our Idea of History. Cambridge: Harvard, 1995.
  • Rosenthal, Alan. Why Docudrama? Fact-Fiction on Film and TV. Carbondale: Southern Illinois, 1998.
  • Searles, Baird. Epic: History on the Big Screen. New York: Abrams, 1990.
  • Short, K.R.M. Feature Films as History. Knoxville: Tennessee, 1981.
  • Sklar, Robert and Charles Musser. Resisting Images: Essays on Cinema and History. Philadelphia: Temple, 1990.
  • Sobchack, Vivian. The Persistence of History: Cinema, Television, and the Modern Event. New York: Routledge, 1996.
  • Sturken, Marita. Tangled Memories: The Vietnam War, the AIDS Epidemic, and the Politics of Remembering. Berkeley: California, 1997.
  • Tashiro, C.S.  Pretty Pictures: Production Design and the History Film. Austin: University of Texas, 1998.
  • Toplin, Robert Brent. History By Hollywood: The Use and Abuse of the American Past. Urbana: Illinois, 1996.
  • Wyke, Maria. Projecting the Past: Ancient Rome, Cinema, and History. New York: Routledge, 1997.

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Horror Films

  • Andriano, Joseph. Immortal Monster: The Mythological Evolution of the Fantastic Beast in Modern Fiction and Film. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999.
  • Badley, Linda. Film, Horror, and the Body Fantastic. Westport: Greenwood, 1995.
  • Berenstein, Rhona J. Attack of the Leading Ladies: Gender, Sexuality and Spectatorship in Classic Horror Cinema. New York: Columbia, 1996.
  • Brunas, Michael et al. Universal Horrors: The Studio's Classic Films. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1990.
  • Carroll, Noel. The Philosophy of Horror, or, Paradoxes of the Heart. New York: Routledge, 1990.
  • Clarens, Carlos. Illustrated History of Horror and Science-Fiction Films. New York: Da Capo, 1997.
  • Clemens, Valdine. The Return of the Repressed: Gothic Horror From the Castle of Otranto to Alien. Albany: State University of New York, 1999.
  • Clover, Carol J. Men, Women and Chain Saws: Gender in Modern Horror Film. Princeton: Princeton, 1992.
  • Crane, Jonathan Lake. Terror and Everyday Life: Singular Moments in the History of the Horror Film. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1994.
  • Creed, Barbara. The Monstrous-Feminine: Film, Feminism, Psychoanalysis. London: Routledge, 1993.
  • Dyson, Jeremy. Bright Darkness: The Lost Art of the Supernatural Horror Film. London: Cassell, 1997.
  • Edmundson, Mark. Nightmare on Main Street: Angels, Sadomasochism, and the Culture of Gothic. Cambridge: Harvard, 1997.
  • Fischer, Dennis. Horror Film Directors, 1931-1990. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1991.
  • Flynn, John L. Cinematic Vampires: The Living Dead on Film and Television. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1992.
  • Fonseca, Anthony J. and June Michele Pulliam.  Hooked on Horror: A Guide to Reading Interests in Horror Fiction. Englewood CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1999.
  • Freeland, Cynthia.  The Naked and the Undead: Evil and the Appeal of Horror. Boulder: Westview Press, 2000.
  • Gelder, Ken. Reading the Vampire. London: Routledge, 1994.
  • Gordon, Joan and Veronica Hollinger. Blood Read: The Vampire as Metaphor in Contemporary Culture. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania, 1997.
  • Grant, Barry Keith. The Dread of Difference: Gender and the Horror Film. Austin: Texas, 1996.
  • Halberstam, Judith. Skin Shows: Gothic Horror and the Technology of Monsters. Durham: Duke, 1995.
  • Hanke, Ken. A Critical Guide to Horror Film Series. New York: Garland, 1991.
  • Hardy, Phil. Horror. Rev. ed. London: Aurum, 1993.
  • Hawkins, Joan. Cutting Edge: Art-Horror and the Horrific Avant-Garde. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2000.
  • Hendershot, Cyndy. The Animal Within: Masculinity and the Gothic. Ann Arbor: Michigan, 1998.
  • Hutchings, Peter. Hammer and Beyond: The British Horror Film. Manchester: Manchester, 1993.
  • Iaccino, James F. Psychological Reflections on Cinematic Terror. Westport: Praeger, 1994.
  • Jancovich, Mark. American Horror from 1951 to the Present. Staffordshire: Keele University, 1994.
  • Jancovich, Mark. Rational Fears: American Horror in the 1950s. Manchester: Manchester, 1996.
  • Jensen, Paul M. The Men Who Made the Monsters. New York: Twayne, 1996.
  • Jones, E. Michael.  Monsters from the Id: The Rise of Horror in Fiction and Film. Dallas: Spence Pub. Co., 2000.
  • Kendrick, Walter M. Thrill of Fear. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1991.
  • Kinnard, Roy. Horror in Silent Films: A Filmography. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1995.
  • McCallum, Lawrence. Italian Horror Films of the 1960s. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1998.
  • Mank, Gregory W. Women in Horror Films, 1930s. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1998.
  • Mank, Gregory W. Women in Horror Films, 1940s. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1998.
  • Maxford, Howard. The A-Z of Horror Films. Bloomington: Indiana, 1997.
  • Mayo, Mike. VideoHound’s Horror Show: 999 Hair-Raising, Hellish, and Humorous Movies. Detroit: Visible Ink Press, 1998.
  • Meikle, Denis. A History of Horrors: The Rise and Fall of the House of Hammer. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1996.
  • Milne, Tom. The Overlook Film Encyclopedia. Horror. Woodstock: Overlook, 1994.
  • Newman, Kim. BFI Companion to Horror. London: Cassell, 1996.
  • Paul, William. Laughing, Screaming: Modern Hollywood Horror and Comedy. New York: Columbia, 1994.
  • Pindedo, Isabel Cristina. Recreational Terror: Women and the Pleasures of Horror Film Viewing. Albany: SUNY, 1997.
  • Rasmussen, Randy Loren. Children of the Night: The Six Archetypal Characters of Classic Horror Films. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1998.
  • Sachs, Bruce. Greasepaint and Gore: The Hammer Monsters of Roy Ashton. Sheffield: Tomahawk Press, 1998.Senn, Bryan. Golden Horrors: An Illustrated Critical Filmography of Terror Cinema, 1931-1939. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1996.
  • Sevastakis, Michael. Songs of Love and Death: The Classical American Horror film of the 1930s. Westport: Greenwood, 1993.
  • Sherman, Frank. Cyborgs, Santa Claus and Satan: Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Films Made for Television. Jefferson NC: McFarland, 2000.
  • Skal, David J. Hollywood Gothic: the Tangled Web of Dracula from Novel to Stage to Screen. New York: Norton, 1990.
  • Skal, David J.  Monster Show: A Cultural History of Horror. New York: Norton, 1993.
  • Skal, David J.  Screams of Reason: Mad Science and Modern Culture. New York: Norton, 1998.
  • Smith, Don G. The Poe Cinema: A Critical Filmography of Theatrical Releases Based on the Works of Edgar Allan Poe. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1999.
  • Smith, Gary A. Uneasy Dreams: The Golden Age of British Horror Films, 1956-1976. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2000.
  • Soister, John T. Of Gods and Monsters: A Critical Guide to Universal Studios’ Science Fiction, Horror, and Mystery Films, 1929-1939. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1999.
  • Stanley, John. Creature Features: The Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror Movie Guide. Updated ed. New York: Berkley Boulevard Books, 2000.
  • Stell, John. Psychos! Sickos! Sequels! Horror Films of the 1980s. Baltimore: Midnight Marquee Press, 1998.
  • Stine, Scott Aaron. The Gorehound’s Guide to Splatter Films of the 1960s and 1970s. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2001.
  • Svehla, Gary J. and Susan, eds. Son of Guilty Pleasures of the Horror Film. Baltimore: Midnight Marquee Press, 1998.
  • Thrower, Stephen. Beyond Terror: The Films of Lucio Fulci. Guildford: FAB, 1999.
  • Tohill, Cathal. Immoral Tales: Sex and Horror Cinema in Europe. London: Primitive, 1994.
  • Watson, Elena M. Television Horror Hosts: 68 Vampires, Mad Scientists, and Other Denizens of the Late-Night Airwaves Examined and Interviewed. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2000.
  • Weaver, Tom. Poverty Row Horrors: Monogram PRC, and Republic Horror Films of the Forties. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1993.
  • Weaver, Tom. Return of the B Science Fiction and Horror Heroes. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2000.
  • Weinberg, Robert E.  Horror of the 20th Century: An Illustrated History. Portland: Collectors Press, 2000.
  • Williams, Tony. Hearths of Darkness: The Family in the American Horror Film. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson, 1996

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  • Bratton, Jacky et al. Melodrama: Stage, Picture, Screen. London: BFI, 1994.
  • Byars, Jackie. All that Hollywood Allows: Re-Reading Gender in 1950s Melodrama. Chapel Hill: North Carolina, 1991.
  • Cavell, Stanley. Contesting Tears: The Hollywood Melodrama of the Unknown Woman. Chicago: Chicago, 1996.
  • Dissanayake, Wimal. Melodrama and Asian Cinema. Cambridge: Cambridge, 1993.
  • Klinger, Barbara. Melodrama and Meaning: History, Culture, and the Films of Douglas Sirk. Bloomington: Indiana, 1994.
  • Landy, Marcia. Imitations of Life. Detroit: Wayne State, 1991.
  • Lang, Robert. American Film Melodrama: Griffith, Vidor, Minnelli. Princeton: Princeton, 1989.

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Encyclopedias and Reference Guides

  • Bradley, Edwin M. The First Hollywood Musicals. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1996.
  • Deutsch, Didier C. MusicHound Soundtracks: The Essential Album Guide. Detroit: Visible Ink Press, 1999.
  • Larkin, Colin. Guinness Who's Who of Film Musicals & Musical Films. Enfield: Guinness, 1994.
  • Larkin, Colin. Virgin Encyclopedia of Stage and Film Musicals. London: Virgin, 1999.
  • History and Interpretation
  • Altman, Rick. The American Film Musical. Bloomington: Indiana, 1987.
  • Barrios, Richard. A Song in the Dark: The Birth of the Musical Film. New York: Oxford, 1995.
  • Buhler, James, Caryl Flinn, and David Neumeyer, eds. Music and Cinema. Hanover: University Press of New England, 2000.
  • Citron, Marcia J. Opera on Screen. New Haven: Yale University, 2000.
  • Feuer, Jane. Hollywood Musical. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1993.
  • Green, Stanley. Hollywood Musicals Year by Year. Milwaukee: H. Leonard, 1990.
  • Henderson, Amy and Dwight Blocker Bowers. Red, Hot & Blue: A Smithsonian Salute to the American Musical. Washington: National Portrait Gallery, 1996.
  • Hirschhorn, Clive. Hollywood Musical. 2nd ed. London: Pyramid, 1991.
  • Marshall, Bill, and Robynn Stilwell, eds. Musicals: Hollywood and Beyond. Exeter: Intellect, 2000.
  • Matthew-Walker, Robert. From Broadway to Hollywood: The Musical and the Cinema. London: Sanctuary, 1996.
  • Mundy, John. Popular Music on Screen: From the Hollywood Musical to Music Video. Manchester: Manchester University, 1999.
  • Parish, James Robert and Michael R. Pitts. Great Hollywood Musical Pictures. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1992.
  • Rubin, Martin. Showstoppers: Busby Berkeley and the Tradition of Spectacle. New York: Columbia, 1993.
  • Wollen, Peter. Singin' in the Rain. London: BFI, 1992.

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Police Films

  • King, Neal. Heroes in Hard Times: Cop Action Movies in the U.S. Philadelphia: Temple University, 1999.
  • Rafter, Nicole Hahn. Shots in the Mirror: Crime Films and Society. Oxford: Oxford University, 2000.
  • Rubin, Martin. Thrillers. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1999.

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Religious Films

  • May, John R. New Image of Religious Film. Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1997.
  • Miles, Margaret Ruth. Seeing and Believing: Religion and Values in the Movies. Boston: Beacon, 1996.

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Road Movies

  • Cohan, Steven and Ina Rae Hark. The Road Movie Book. London: Routledge, 1997.

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Science Fiction

Encyclopedias and Reference Guides

  • Hardy, Phil. The Overlook Film Encyclopedia. Science Fiction. Woodstock: Overlook, 1994.
  • Holston, Kim R. Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror Films Sequels, Series, and Remakes. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1997.
  • Jungian Reflections Within the Cinema: A Psychological Analysis of Sci-Fi and Fantasy Archetypes. Westport: Praeger, 1998.
  • Kinnard, Roy. Science Fiction Serials: A Critical Filmography. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1998.
  • Lentz, Harris M. Science Fiction, Horror & Fantasy Film and Television Credits. Supplement 2. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1994.
  • Mitchell, Charles P.  A Guide to Apocalyptic Cinema. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2001.
  • Senn, Bryan and John Johnson. Fantastic Cinema Subject Guide. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1992.
  • Sherman, Fraser A.  Cyborgs, Santa Claus and Satan: Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror Films Made for Television. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2000.
  • Soister, John T. Of Gods and Monsters: A Critical Guide to Universal Studios’ Science Fiction, Horror, and Mystery Films, 1929-1939. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1999.
  • Stanley, John. Creature Features: The Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror Movie Guide. Updated ed. New York: Berkley Boulevard Books, 2000.
  • Young, R.G. Encyclopedia of Fantastic Film. New York: Applause, 1997.

History and Interpretation

  • Booker, M. Keith. Dystopian Literature: A Theory and Research Guide. Westport: Greenwood, 1994.
  • Brosnan, John. The Primal Screen: A History of Science Fiction Film. London: Orbit, 1991.
  • Clarens, Carlos. Illustrated History of Horror and Science-Fiction Films. New York: Da Capo, 1997.
  • Fischer, Dennis. Science Fiction Film Directors, 1995-1998. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2000.
  • Galbraith, Stuart. Japanese Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror Films. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1994.
  • Galbraith, Stuart. Monsters are Attacking Tokyo! The Incredible World of Japanese Fantasy Films. Venice, CA: Feral House, 1998.
  • Goldberg, Lee.  Science Fiction Filmmaking in the 1980s. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1995.
  • Hardy, Phil. Science Fiction. 3rd ed. London: Aurum, 1995.
  • Hendershot, Cynthia. Paranoia, the Bomb, and 1950s Science Fiction Films. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University, 1999.
  • Hunter, I.Q., ed.  British Science Fiction Cinema. London: Routledge, 1999.
  • Kuhn, Annette. Alien Zone: Cultural Theory and Contemporary Science Fiction. New York: Verso, 1990.
  • Parish, James Robert and Michael R. Pitts. Great Science Fiction Pictures II. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1990.
  • Penley, Constance. Close Encounters: Film, Feminism, and Science Fiction. Minneapolis: Minnesota, 1991.
  • Schelde, Per. Androids, Humanoids, and Other Science Fiction Monsters: Science and Soul in Science Fiction Films. New York: New York University, 1993.
  • Seed, David. American Science Fiction and the Cold War: Literature and Film. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999.
  • Sobchack, Vivian Carol. Screening Space: The American Science Fiction Film. 2nd ed. New Brunswick: Rutgers, 1997.
  • Stocker, Jack H., ed. Chemistry and Science Fiction. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society, 1998.
  • Telotte, J.P. Replications: A Robotic History of the Science Fiction Film. Urbana: Illinois, 1995.
  • Weaver, Tom. Return of the B Science Fiction and Horror Heroes. Jefferson, NC: McFarland Classics, 2000.
  • Weaver, Tom.  Science Fiction and Fantasy Film Flashbacks. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1998.
  • Westfahl, Gary, ed. Space and Beyond: The Frontier Theme in Science Fiction. Westport: Greenwood, 2000.
  • Willis, Donald C. Horror and Science Fiction Films IV. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1997.

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Social Problem Film

  • Aitkin, Ian. Film and Reform: John Grierson and the Documentary Film Movement. London: Routledge, 1990.
  • Braendlin, Bonnie and Hans. Authority and Transgression in Literature and Film. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996.
  • Brownlow, Kevin. Behind the Mask of Innocence. New York: Knopf, 1990.
  • Roffman, Peter and Jim Purdy. The Hollywood Social Problem Film. Bloomington: Indiana, 1981.
  • Sloan, Kay. The Loud Silents: Origins of the Social Problem Film. Urbana: Illinois, 1988.
  • South Sea Island Films
  • Langman, Larry. Return to Paradise: A Guide to South Sea Island Films. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1998.

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Sports Films

  • Chandler, David. Boxer: An Anthology of Writings on Boxing and Visual Culture. Cambridge: MIT, 1996.
  • Tudor, Deborah V. Hollywood's Vision of Team Sports: Heroes, Race, and Gender. New York: Garland, 1997.

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Spy Films

  • Black, Jeremy. The Politics of James Bond: From Fleming’s Novels to the Big Screen. Westport: Praeger, 2001.
  • Langman, Larry and David Ebner. An Encyclopedia of American Spy Films. New York: Garland, 1990.
  • Mavis, Paul. The Espionage Filmography: A Complete Guide to Spy Movies.  Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2000.
  • Rubin, Martin. Thrillers. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1999.

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War Films


  • Wetta, Frank Joseph and Stephen J. Curley. Celluloid Wars. New York: Greenwood, 1992.


  • Mayo, Mike. VideoHound’s War Movies: Classic Conflict on Film. Detroit: Visible Ink, 1999.

General Works

  • Guttmacher, Peter. Legendary War Movies. New York: MetroBooks, 1996.
  • Paris, Michael. From the Wright Brothers to Top Gun: Aviation, Nationalism and Popular Cinema. Manchester: Manchester, 1995.
  • Parish, James Robert. The Great Combat Pictures: Twentieth-Century Warfare on the Screen. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1990.
  • Quirk, Lawrence J. The Great War Films. Secaucus: Carol, 1994.
  • Suid, Lawrence H. Guts and Glory: Great American War Movies. Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1978.
  • Suid, Lawrence H. Sailing on the Silver Screen: Hollywood and the U.S. Navy. Annapolis: Naval Institute, 1996.

Civil War

  • Kinnard, Roy. The Blue and the Gray on the Silver Screen. Secaucus: Carol, 1996.

Vietnam War

  • Anderegg, Michael. Inventing Vietnam: The War in Film and Television. Philadelphia: Temple, 1991.
  • Auster, Albert and Leonard Quart. How the War was Remembered: Hollywood and Vietnam. Westport: Praeger, 1988.
  • Devine, Jeremy M. Vietnam at 24 Frames a Second. Jefferson: N.C.: McFarland, 1994.
  • Dittmar, Linda and Gene Michaud. From Hanoi to Hollywood: The Vietnam War in American Film. New Brunswick: Rutgers, 1990.
  • Gilman, Owen W., Jr. and Lorrie Smith. America Rediscovered: Critical Essays on Literature and Film of the Vietnam War. New York: Garland, 1990.
  • Hellmann, John. American Myth and the Legacy of Vietnam. New York: Columbia, 1986.
  • Hillstrom, Kevin. The Vietnam Experience. Westport: Greenwood, 1998.
  • Muse, Eben J. The Land of Nam: The Vietnam War in American Film. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1995.
  • Rowe, John Carlos and Rick Berg. The Vietnam War and American Culture. New York: Columbia, 1991.
  • Walker, Mark. Vietnam Veteran Films. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1991.

World War I

  • Campbell, Craig. Reel American and World War I. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1985.
  • DeBauche, Leslie Midkiff. Reel Patriotism: The Movies and World War I. Madison: Wisconsin, 1997.
  • Isenberg, Michael T. War on Film: The American Cinema and World War I. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson, 1981.
  • Kelly, Andrew. Cinema and the Great War. London: Routledge, 1997.
  • Ward, Larry Wayne. The Motion Picture Goes to War: The U.S. Government Film Effort During World War I. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1985.

World War II

  • Basinger, Jeanine. The World War II Combat Film. New York: Columbia, 1986.
  • Dick, Bernard F. The Star-Spangled Screen: The American World War II Film. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1985.
  • Doherty, Thomas Patrick. Projections of War: Hollywood, American Culture, and World War II. New York: Columbia, 1993.
  • Fyne, Robert. Hollywood Propaganda of World War II. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1994.
  • Kane, Kathryn. Visions of War: The Hollywood Combat Films of World War II. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1982.

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  • Nachbar, John G.  Western Films: An Annotated Critical Bibiliography. New York: Garland Pub., 1975.
  • Nachbar, John G., Jackie R. Donath, and Chris Foran. Western Films 2: An Annotated Critical Bibliography from 1974 to 1987. New York: Garland Pub., 1988.

Biographical Directories

  • Katchmer, George A.  A Biographical Dictionary of Silent Film Western Actors and Actresses. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2000.


  • Lentz, Harris M., III. Western and Frontier Film and Television Credits, 1903-1995. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1996.


  • Blottner, Gene, Universal-International Westerns, 1947-1963: The Complete Filmography Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2000.
  • Eyles, Allen. The Western. South Brunswick: A.S. Barnes, 1975.

Film Adaptations

  • Hitt, Jim.  The Amerian West From Fiction (1823-1976) into Film (1909-1986). Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1990.

Reference Guides and Encyclopedias

  • Adams, Les and Buck Rainey. Shoot-Em Ups: The Complete Reference Guide to Westerns of the Sound Era. New Rochelle, N.Y.: Arlington House Pub. 1978.
  • Buscombe, Edward, ed.  The BFI Companion to the Western. London: A. Deutsch, 1988.
  • Garfield, Brian. Western Films: A Complete Guide. New York: Da Capo Press, 1982.
  • Hardy, Phil, ed.  The Overlook Film Encyclopedia: The Western. Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook Press, 1994.
  • Hardy, Phil. The Western. Rev. updated ed. London: Aurum, 1991.
  • Holland, Ted. B Western Actors Encylopedia: Facts, Photos, and Filmographies for More than 250 Familiar Faces. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1989.

Histories and Interpretations

  • Bull, Debby. Hillbilly Hollywood: The Origins of Country & Western Style: Featuring the Vintage Costume Collection of Marty Stuart. New York, NY: Rizzoli, 2000.
  • Calder, Jenni. There Must be a Lone Ranger London: Hamilton, 1974.
  • Cameron, Ian, and Douglas Pye, ed. The Movie Book of the Western. London: Studio Vista, 1996.
  • Canfield, J. Douglas Mavericks on the Border: The Early Southwest in Historical Fiction and Film Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky, 2001.
  • Cawelti, John G. The Six-Gun Mystique. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1971.
  • Cawelti, John G. The Six-gun Mystique Sequel. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1999.
  • Coyne, Michael. The Crowded Prairie: American National Identity in the Hollywood Western. London ; New York: I.B. Tauris ; [New York: distributed by St. Martin's Press], 1997.
  • Davis, Robert Murray. Playing Cowboys: Low Culture and High Art in the Western. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.
  • Everson, William K. The Hollywood Western. Secuaucus, N.J.: Carol Pub., 1992.
  • Fenin, George N. and William K. Everson. The Western, From Silents to the Seventies. Rev. ed. New York: Penguin Books, 1977.
  • French, Peter A. Cowboy Metaphysics: Ethics and Death in Westerns. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.
  • French, Philip. Westerns: Aspects of a Movie Genre. Rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.
  • Hamilton, John R. and John Calvin Batchelor. Thunder in the Dust: Classic Images of Western Movies. New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang: Distributed by Workman  Pub., 1987.
  • Hitt, Jim. The American West from Fiction (1823-1976) into Film (1909-1986) Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1990.
  • Jacobs, Del. Revisioning Film Traditions: The Pseudo-documentary and the Neo-Western. Lewiston [N.Y.]: Mellen Press, 2000.
  • Lenihan, John H. Showdown: Confronting Modern America in the Western Film. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1980.
  • McDonald, Archie P., ed. Shooting Stars: Heroes and Heroines of Western Film. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.
  • Meyer, William R. The Making of the Great Westerns. New Rochelle, N.Y.: Arlington House, 1979.
  • Mitchell, Lee Clark. A Man is Being Beaten: Constructing Masculinity in the American Western. [Berlin: John-F. Kennedy-Institut fur Nordamerikastudien, 1993].
  • Mitchell, Lee Clark. Westerns: Making the Man in Fiction and Film. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
  • Nachbar, John G., comp. Focus on the Western. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1974.
  • O’Neil, Paul, and the editors of Time-Life Books. The End and the Myth. Alexandria, Va.: Time-Life Books, 1979.
  • Parish, James Robert and Michael R. Pitts. The Great Western Pictures. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1976.
  • Parish, James Robert and Michael R. Pitts. Great Western Pictures II. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1988.
  • Parks, Rita. The Western Hero in film and Television: Mass Media Mythology. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1982.
  • Pilkington, William T. and Don Graham, ed. Western Movies. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1979.
  • Rainey, Buck. The Reel Comboy: Essays on the Myth in Movies and Literature. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1996.
  • Rainey, Buck. Western Gunslingers in Fact and on Film: Hollywood's Famous Lawmen and Outlaws. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company, 1998.
  • Rothel, David. Those Great Cowboy Sidekicks. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1984.
  • Sarf, Wayne Michael. God Bless You, Buffalo Bill: A Layman's Guide to History and the Western Film. Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1983.
  • Short, John R. Imagined Country: Environment, Culture, and Society. London: Routledge, Chapman, and Hall, 1991.
  • Slotkin, Richard. Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier in Twentieth-Century America. New York: Atheneum, 1992.
  • Sullivan, Tom R. Cowboys and Caudillos: Frontier Ideology of the Americas. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1990.
  • Thomas, Tony The West that Never Was. New York: Carol Communications, 1989.
  • Tompkins, Jane P. West of Everything: The Inner Life of Westerns. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
  • Turner, Ralph Lamar, and Robert J. Higgs. The Cowboy Way: The Western Leader in Film, 1945-1995. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1999.
  • Tuska, Jon. The American West In Film: Critical Approaches to the Western. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1985.
  • Tuska, Jon. The Filming of the West. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1976.
  • Walle, Alf H  The Cowboy Hero and its Audience: Popular Culture as Market Derived Art. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 2000.Wallmann, Jeffrey M. The Western: Parables of the American Dream. Lubbock, Tex: Texas Tech University Press, 1999.
  • Wright, Will. Six Guns and Society: A Structural Study of the Western. Berkeley: University of California, 1975.
  • Yoggy, Gary A. ed., Back in the Saddle: Essays on Western Film and Television Actors. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 1998.

Masculinity in Westerns

  • Mitchell, Lee Clark. Westerns: Making the Man in Fiction and Film. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Memoirs and Interview

  • Fagen, Herb. White Hats and Silver Spurs: Interviews with 24 stars of Film and Television Westerns of the Thirties through the Sixties. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1996.
  • Fraser, Harry. I Went That-a-way: The Memoirs of a Western Film Director. Edited by Wheeler W. Dixon and Audrey Brown Fraser. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1990.

Silent Westerns

  • Brownlow, Kevin. The War, the West, and the Wilderness. New York: Knopf, 1979.
  • Langman, Larry. A Guide to Silent Westerns. New York: Greenwood Press, 1992.

Singing Cowboys

  • Rothel, David. The Singing Cowboys. South Brunswick, N.J.: A.S. Barnes, 1978.

Spaghetti Westerns

  • Frayling, Christopher. Spaghetti Westerns: Cowboys and Europeans from Karl May to Sergio Leone. Rev. Ed. London: I.B. Tauris, 1998.
  • Weisser, Thomas. Spaghetti Westerns: The Good, the Bad, and the Violent: A Comprehensive, Illustrated Filmography of 558 Eurowesterns and their Personnel, 1961-1977. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1992.Television Westerners
  • Jackson, Ronald, Classic TV Westerns: A Pictorial History. Secaucus, N.J.: Carol Pub. Group, 1994.

Treatment of Indians

  • Bataille, Gretchen M., Charles L.P. Silet, eds. The Pretend Indians: Images of Native Americans in the Movies. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1980.
  • Bataille, Gretchen M. and Charles L.P. Silet. Images of Amerian Indians on Film: An Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1985.
  • Churchill, Ward. Fantasies of the Master Race: Literature, Cinema, and the Colonization of American Indians. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1998.
  • Friar, Ralph E. and Natasha A. Friar. The Only Good Indian. New York: Drama Book Specialists, 1972.
  • Hilger, Michael. The American Indian in Film. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1986.
  • Hilger, Michael. From Savage to Nobleman: Images of Native Americans in Film. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1996.
  • Kilpatrick, Jacquelyn. Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film. Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press, 1999.
  • O'Connor, John E. The Hollywood Indian. Trenton, N.J.: New Jersey State Museum, 1980.
  • Owens, Louis. Mixedblood Messages: Literature, Film, Family, Place. University of Oklahoma Press, 1998.
  • Peter C. Rollins and John E. O'Connor, eds. Hollywood's Indian: The Portrayal of the Native American in Film. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1998.

Women in Westerns

  • Lackmann, Ronald W. Women of the Western Frontier in Fact, Fiction, and Film. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1997.

European Histories and Interpretations of Westerns

  • Bertelsen, Martin. Roadmovies und Western: Ein Vergleich zur Genre-estimmung des Roadmovies. Ammersbek bei Hamburg: Verlag an der Lottbek, 1991.
  • Brion, Patrick. Le Western: Classiques, Chefs-D'Oeuvre et Decouvertes. Paris: Editions de La Martiniere, 1992.
  • De Luca, Lorenzo. C'era una Vlta il Western Italiano. Roma: Istituto Bibliographico Napoleone, 1987.
  • Di Claudio, Gianni. Il Cinema Western. Chieti: Libreria Uniersitaria Editrice, 1986.
  • Gaberscel. Carlo. Il West di John Ford. Tavagnacco: Arti Grafiche Friulane, 1994.
  • Hanisch, Michael. Western: Die Entwicklung Eines Filmgenres. Berlin: Henschelverlag Kunst und Gesellschaft, 1984.
  • Hembus, Joe. Western-Geschichte, 1540 bis 1894: Chronologie, Mythologie, Filmographie. Munchen: C. Hanser, 1979.
  • Hembus, Joe. Western-Lexikon: 1272 Filme von 1894-1975. Munchen: Hanser Verlag, 1976.
  • Jeier, Thomas. Der Westernfilm. Munchen: Wilhelm Heyne, 1987.
  • Kartseva, E., Vestern: Evoliutsiia Zhanra. Moskva: Iskusstvo, 1976.
  • Kezich, Tullio. Il Mito del Far West. 2nd ed. Milano: Il Formichiere, 1980.Leguebe, Eric. Histoire Universelle du Western. Paris: Editions France-Empire, 1989.
  • Leutrat, Jean Louis. L'Alliance Brisee: Le Western des Annees 1920. Lyon: Presses Universitaires de Lyon: Institute Lumiere, 1985.Leutrat, Jean Louis. Le Western: Archeologie d'un Genre. Lyon: Presses Universitaires de Lyon, 1987.
  • Leutrat, Jean Louis and S. Liandrat-Guigues. Les Cartes de l'Ouest: Un Genre Cinemaographique, Le Western. Paris: A. Colin, 1990.
  • Mauduy, Jacques and Gerard Henriet. Geographies du Western: Une Nation en Marche. Paris: Nathan, 1989.
  • Morin, Georges Henry. Le Cercle Brise: L'Image de L'Indien Dans Le Western. Paris: Payot, 1977.
  • Moscati, Massimo. Western All'Italiana. Milano: Pan, 1978.
  • Seesslen, Georg. Western: Geschichte und Mythologie des Westernfilms. Marburg: Schuren, 1995.
  • Seesslen, Georg. Western-Kino. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1979.


  • Nott, Robert. Last of the Cowboy Heroes: The Westerns of Randolph Scott, Joel McCrea, and Audie Murphy. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2000.

William S. Hart

  • Koszarski, Diane Kaiser. The Complete Films of William S. Hart: A Pictorial Record. New York: Dover Publications, 1980.

John Wayne

  • Davis, Ronald L. Duke: The Life and Image of John Wayne. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998.
  • Fagen, Herb. Duke, We're Glad We Knew You. New York: Carol Pub. Group, 1996.
  • McGhee, Richard D. John Wayne: Actor, Artist, Hero. Jefferson, N.C.; London: McFarland, 2000.
  • Roberts, Randy, and James S. Olson. John Wayne: American. New York: The Free Press, 1995.
  • Wills, Garry. John Wayne's America: The Politics of Celebrity. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.

Producers and Directors

  • Fraser, Harry. I Went That-a-Way: The Memoirs of a Western Film Director. ed. Wheeler W. Dixon and Audrey Brown Fraser. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1990.
  • Kites, Demetrius John. Horizons West: Anthony Mann, Budd Boetticher, Sam Peckinpah, Studies of Authorship within the Western. Bloomington: Indiana University press, 1970.
  • Place, Janey Ann. The Western Films of John Ford. Secaucus: Citadel Press, 1974.
  • Seydor, Paul. Peckinpah, The Western Films. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1980.

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