This exhibit examines one of the most turbulent and controversial eras in American history. It presents an up-to-date portrait of a period whose unrealized goals of economic and racial justice still confront our society.

The text is by Eric Foner, the DeWitt Clinton Professor of History at Columbia University, and Olivia Mahoney, Director of Historical Documentation at the Chicago Historical Society.


A New Birth of Freedom: Reconstruction During the Civil War The Meaning of Freedom: Black and White Responses to Slavery From Free Labor to Slave Labor Rights and Power: The Politics of Reconstruction Introduction The Ending of Reconstruction Epilogue: The Unfinished Revolution Additional Resources Credits for the Exhibit Link to Digital History Home