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Welfare Reform Act of 1996
Digital History ID 4100


Date:1996

Annotation: This law revised federal welfare policies.

Bi-Partisan legislation revised funding and eligibility for welfare. Among other changes, assisstance was limited to a total of five years and funding was provided by the Federal government to the states as block grants.


Document: H.R.3734 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (Enrolled as Agreed to or Passed by Both House and Senate)

Sec. 101. Findings.

The Congress makes the following findings:

(1) Marriage is the foundation of a successful society.

(2) Marriage is an essential institution of a successful society which promotes the interests of children.

(3) Promotion of responsible fatherhood and motherhood is integral to successful child rearing and the well-being of children.

(4) In 1992, only 54 percent of single-parent families with children had a child support order established and, of that 54 percent, only about one-half received the full amount due. Of the cases enforced through the public child support enforcement system, only 18 percent of the caseload has a collection.

(5) The number of individuals receiving aid to families with dependent children (in this section referred to as `AFDC') has more than tripled since 1965. More than two-thirds of these recipients are children. Eighty-nine percent of children receiving AFDC benefits now live in homes in which no father is present.

(A)(i) The average monthly number of children receiving AFDC benefits--

(I) was 3,300,000 in 1965;

(II) was 6,200,000 in 1970;

(III) was 7,400,000 in 1980; and

(IV) was 9,300,000 in 1992.

(ii) While the number of children receiving AFDC benefits increased nearly threefold between 1965 and 1992, the total number of children in the United States aged 0 to 18 has declined by 5.5 percent.

(B) The Department of Health and Human Services has estimated that 12,000,000 children will receive AFDC benefits within 10 years.

(C) The increase in the number of children receiving public assistance is closely related to the increase in births to unmarried women. Between 1970 and 1991, the percentage of live births to unmarried women increased nearly threefold, from 10.7 percent to 29.5 percent.

(6) The increase of out-of-wedlock pregnancies and births is well documented as follows:

(A) It is estimated that the rate of nonmarital teen pregnancy rose 23 percent from 54 pregnancies per 1,000 unmarried teenagers in 1976 to 66.7 pregnancies in 1991. The overall rate of nonmarital pregnancy rose 14 percent from 90.8 pregnancies per 1,000 unmarried women in 1980 to 103 in both 1991 and 1992. In contrast, the overall pregnancy rate for married couples decreased 7.3 percent between 1980 and 1991, from 126.9 pregnancies per 1,000 married women in 1980 to 117.6 pregnancies in 1991.

(B) The total of all out-of-wedlock births between 1970 and 1991 has risen from 10.7 percent to 29.5 percent and if the current trend continues, 50 percent of all births by the year 2015 will be out-of-wedlock.

(7) An effective strategy to combat teenage pregnancy must address the issue of male responsibility, including statutory rape culpability and prevention. The increase of teenage pregnancies among the youngest girls is particularly severe and is linked to predatory sexual practices by men who are significantly older.

(A) It is estimated that in the late 1980's, the rate for girls age 14 and under giving birth increased 26 percent.

(B) Data indicates that at least half of the children born to teenage mothers are fathered by adult men. Available data suggests that almost 70 percent of births to teenage girls are fathered by men over age 20.

(C) Surveys of teen mothers have revealed that a majority of such mothers have histories of sexual and physical abuse, primarily with older adult men.

(8) The negative consequences of an out-of-wedlock birth on the mother, the child, the family, and society are well documented as follows:

(A) Young women 17 and under who give birth outside of marriage are more likely to go on public assistance and to spend more years on welfare once enrolled. These combined effects of `younger and longer' increase total AFDC costs per household by 25 percent to 30 percent for 17-year-olds.

(B) Children born out-of-wedlock have a substantially higher risk of being born at a very low or moderately low birth weight.

(C) Children born out-of-wedlock are more likely to experience low verbal cognitive attainment, as well as more child abuse, and neglect.

(D) Children born out-of-wedlock were more likely to have lower cognitive scores, lower educational aspirations, and a greater likelihood of becoming teenage parents themselves.

(E) Being born out-of-wedlock significantly reduces the chances of the child growing up to have an intact marriage.

(F) Children born out-of-wedlock are 3 times more likely to be on welfare when they grow up.

(9) Currently 35 percent of children in single-parent homes were born out-of-wedlock, nearly the same percentage as that of children in single-parent homes whose parents are divorced (37 percent). While many parents find themselves, through divorce or tragic circumstances beyond their control, facing the difficult task of raising children alone, nevertheless, the negative consequences of raising children in single-parent homes are well documented as follows:

(A) Only 9 percent of married-couple families with children under 18 years of age have income below the national poverty level. In contrast, 46 percent of female-headed households with children under 18 years of age are below the national poverty level.

(B) Among single-parent families, nearly 1/2 of the mothers who never married received AFDC while only 1/5 of divorced mothers received AFDC.

(C) Children born into families receiving welfare assistance are 3 times more likely to be on welfare when they reach adulthood than children not born into families receiving welfare.

(D) Mothers under 20 years of age are at the greatest risk of bearing low birth weight babies.

(E) The younger the single-parent mother, the less likely she is to finish high school.

(F) Young women who have children before finishing high school are more likely to receive welfare assistance for a longer period of time.

(G) Between 1985 and 1990, the public cost of births to teenage mothers under the aid to families with dependent children program, the food stamp program, and the Medicaid program has been estimated at $120,000,000,000.

(H) The absence of a father in the life of a child has a negative effect on school performance and peer adjustment.

(I) Children of teenage single parents have lower cognitive scores, lower educational aspirations, and a greater likelihood of becoming teenage parents themselves.

(J) Children of single-parent homes are 3 times more likely to fail and repeat a year in grade school than are children from intact 2-parent families.

(K) Children from single-parent homes are almost 4 times more likely to be expelled or suspended from school.

(L) Neighborhoods with larger percentages of youth aged 12 through 20 and areas with higher percentages of single-parent households have higher rates of violent crime.

(M) Of those youth held for criminal offenses within the State juvenile justice system, only 29.8 percent lived primarily in a home with both parents. In contrast to these incarcerated youth, 73.9 percent of the 62,800,000 children in the Nation's resident population were living with both parents.

(10) Therefore, in light of this demonstration of the crisis in our Nation, it is the sense of the Congress that prevention of out-of-wedlock pregnancy and reduction in out-of-wedlock birth are very important Government interests and the policy contained in part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (as amended by section 103(a) of this Act) is intended to address the crisis.

Sec. 102. Reference Tr Social Security Act.

Except as otherwise specifically provided, wherever in this title an amendment is expressed in terms of an amendment to or repeal of a section or other provision, the reference shall be considered to be made to that section or other provision of the Social Security Act.

Sec. 103. Block Grants To States.

(a) In general- Part A of title IV (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) is amended--

(1) by striking all that precedes section 418 (as added by section 603(b)(2) of this Act) and inserting the following:

Part A--Block Grants To States For Temporary Assistance For Needy Families

Sec. 401. Purpose.

(a) In general- The purpose of this part is to increase the flexibility of States in operating a program designed to--

(1) provide assistance to needy families so that children may be cared for in their own homes or in the homes of relatives;

(2) end the dependence of needy parents on government benefits by promoting job preparation, work, and marriage;

(3) prevent and reduce the incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies and establish annual numerical goals for preventing and reducing the incidence of these pregnancies; and

(4) encourage the formation and maintenance of two-parent families.

(b) No individual entitlement- This part shall not be interpreted to entitle any individual or family to assistance under any State program funded under this part.

Sec. 402. Eligible States; State Plan.

(a) In general- As used in this part, the term `eligible State' means, with respect to a fiscal year, a State that, during the 2-year period immediately preceding the fiscal year, has submitted to the Secretary a plan that the Secretary has found includes the following:

(1) Outline Of Family Assistance Program-

(A) General Provisions- A written document that outlines how the State intends to do the following:

(i) Conduct a program, designed to serve all political subdivisions in the State (not necessarily in a uniform manner), that provides assistance to needy families with (or expecting) children and provides parents with job preparation, work, and support services to enable them to leave the program and become self-sufficient.

(ii) Require a parent or caretaker receiving assistance under the program to engage in work (as defined by the State) once the State determines the parent or caretaker is ready to engage in work, or once the parent or caretaker has received assistance under the program for 24 months (whether or not consecutive), whichever is earlier.

(iii) Ensure that parents and caretakers receiving assistance under the program engage in work activities in accordance with section 407.

(iv) Take such reasonable steps as the State deems necessary to restrict the use and disclosure of information about individuals and families receiving assistance under the program attributable to funds provided by the Federal Government.

(v) Establish goals and take action to prevent and reduce the incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies, with special emphasis on teenage pregnancies, and establish numerical goals for reducing the illegitimacy ratio of the State (as defined in section 403(a)(2)(B)) for calendar years 1996 through 2005.

(vi) Conduct a program, designed to reach State and local law enforcement officials, the education system, and relevant counseling services, that provides education and training on the problem of statutory rape so that teenage pregnancy prevention programs may be expanded in scope to include men.

(B) Special Provisions-

(i) The document shall indicate whether the State intends to treat families moving into the State from another State differently than other families under the program, and if so, how the State intends to treat such families under the program.

(ii) The document shall indicate whether the State intends to provide assistance under the program to individuals who are not citizens of the United States, and if so, shall include an overview of such assistance.

(iii) The document shall set forth objective criteria for the delivery of benefits and the determination of eligibility and for fair and equitable treatment, including an explanation of how the State will provide opportunities for recipients who have been adversely affected to be heard in a State administrative or appeal process.

(iv) Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, unless the chief executive officer of the State opts out of this provision by notifying the Secretary, a State shall, consistent with the exception provided in section 407(e)(2), require a parent or caretaker receiving assistance under the program who, after receiving such assistance for 2 months is not exempt from work requirements and is not engaged in work, as determined under section 407(c), to participate in community service employment, with minimum hours per week and tasks to be determined by the State.

(2) Certification that the state will operate a child support enforcement program- A certification by the chief executive officer of the State that, during the fiscal year, the State will operate a child support enforcement program under the State plan approved under part D.

(3) Certification that the state will operate a foster care and adoption assistance program- A certification by the chief executive officer of the State that, during the fiscal year, the State will operate a foster care and adoption assistance program under the State plan approved under part E, and that the State will take such actions as are necessary to ensure that children receiving assistance under such part are eligible for medical assistance under the State plan under title XIX.

(4) Certification of the administration of the program- A certification by the chief executive officer of the State specifying which State agency or agencies will administer and supervise the program referred to in paragraph (1) for the fiscal year, which shall include assurances that local governments and private sector organizations--

(A) have been consulted regarding the plan and design of welfare services in the State so that services are provided in a manner appropriate to local populations; and

(B) have had at least 45 days to submit comments on the plan and the design of such services.

(5) Certification that the state will provide Indians with equitable access to assistance- A certification by the chief executive officer of the State that, during the fiscal year, the State will provide each member of an Indian tribe, who is domiciled in the State and is not eligible for assistance under a tribal family assistance plan approved under section 412, with equitable access to assistance under the State program funded under this part attributable to funds provided by the Federal Government.

(6) Certification of standards and procedures to ensure against program fraud and abuse- A certification by the chief executive officer of the State that the State has established and is enforcing standards and procedures to ensure against program fraud and abuse, including standards and procedures concerning nepotism, conflicts of interest among individuals responsible for the administration and supervision of the State program, kickbacks, and the use of political patronage.

(7) Optional certification of standards and procedures to ensure that the state will screen for and identify domestic violence-

(A) In general- At the option of the State, a certification by the chief executive officer of the State that the State has established and is enforcing standards and procedures to--

(i) screen and identify individuals receiving assistance under this part with a history of domestic violence while maintaining the confidentiality of such individuals;

(ii) refer such individuals to counseling and supportive services; and

(iii) waive, pursuant to a determination of good cause, other program requirements such as time limits (for so long as necessary) for individuals receiving assistance, residency requirements, child support cooperation requirements, and family cap provisions, in cases where compliance with such requirements would make it more difficult for individuals receiving assistance under this part to escape domestic violence or unfairly penalize such individuals who are or have been victimized by such violence, or individuals who are at risk of further domestic violence.

(B) Domestic violence defined- For purposes of this paragraph, the term `domestic violence' has the same meaning as the term `battered or subjected to extreme cruelty', as defined in section 408(a)(7)(C)(iii).

(b) Public availability of state plan summary- The State shall make available to the public a summary of any plan submitted by the State under this section.

Sec. 403. Grants To States.

(a) Grants-

(1) Family Assistance Grant-

(A) In general- Each eligible State shall be entitled to receive from the Secretary, for each of fiscal years 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002, a grant in an amount equal to the State family assistance grant.

(B) State family assistance grant defined- As used in this part, the term `State family assistance grant' means the greatest of--

(i) 1/3 of the total amount required to be paid to the State under former section 403 (as in effect on September 30, 1995) for fiscal years 1992, 1993, and 1994 (other than with respect to amounts expended by the State for child care under subsection (g) or (i) of former section 402 (as so in effect));

(ii)(I) the total amount required to be paid to the State under former section 403 for fiscal year 1994 (other than with respect to amounts expended by the State for child care under subsection (g) or (i) of former section 402 (as so in effect)); plus

(II) an amount equal to 85 percent of the amount (if any) by which the total amount required to be paid to the State under former section 403(a)(5) for emergency assistance for fiscal year 1995 exceeds the total amount required to be paid to the State under former section 403(a)(5) for fiscal year 1994, if, during fiscal year 1994 or 1995, the Secretary approved under former section 402 an amendment to the former State plan with respect to the provision of emergency assistance; or

(iii) 4/3 of the total amount required to be paid to the State under former section 403 (as in effect on September 30, 1995) for the 1st 3 quarters of fiscal year 1995 (other than with respect to amounts expended by the State under the State plan approved under part F (as so in effect) or for child care under subsection (g) or (i) of former section 402 (as so in effect)), plus the total amount required to be paid to the State for fiscal year 1995 under former section 403(l) (as so in effect).

(C) Total amount required to be paid to the state under former Section 403 defined- As used in this part, the term `total amount required to be paid to the State under former section 403' means, with respect to a fiscal year--

(i) in the case of a State to which section 1108 does not apply, the sum of--

(I) the Federal share of maintenance assistance expenditures for the fiscal year, before reduction pursuant to subparagraph (B) or (C) of section 403(b)(2) (as in effect on September 30, 1995), as reported by the State on ACF Form 231;

(II) the Federal share of administrative expenditures (including administrative expenditures for the development of management information systems) for the fiscal year, as reported by the State on ACF Form 231;

(III) the Federal share of emergency assistance expenditures for the fiscal year, as reported by the State on ACF Form 231;

(IV) the Federal share of expenditures for the fiscal year with respect to child care pursuant to subsections (g) and (i) of former section 402 (as in effect on September 30, 1995), as reported by the State on ACF Form 231; and

(V) the Federal obligations made to the State under section 403 for the fiscal year with respect to the State program operated under part F (as in effect on September 30, 1995), as determined by the Secretary, including additional obligations or reductions in obligations made after the close of the fiscal year; and

(ii) in the case of a State to which section 1108 applies, the lesser of--

(I) the sum described in clause (i); or

(II) the total amount certified by the Secretary under former section 403 (as in effect during the fiscal year) with respect to the territory.

(D) Information To Be Used Id Determining Amounts-

(i) For fiscal years 1992 and 1993-

(I) In determining the amounts described in subclauses (I) through (IV) of subparagraph (C)(i) for any State for each of fiscal years 1992 and 1993, the Secretary shall use information available as of April 28, 1995.

(II) In determining the amount described in subparagraph (C)(i)(V) for any State for each of fiscal years 1992 and 1993, the Secretary shall use information available as of January 6, 1995.

(ii) For fiscal year 1994- In determining the amounts described in subparagraph (C)(i) for any State for fiscal year 1994, the Secretary shall use information available as of April 28, 1995.

(iii) For fiscal year 1995-

(I) In determining the amount described in subparagraph (B)(ii)(II) for any State for fiscal year 1995, the Secretary shall use the information which was reported by the States and estimates made by the States with respect to emergency assistance expenditures and was available as of August 11, 1995.

(II) In determining the amounts described in subclauses (I) through (III) of subparagraph (C)(i) for any State for fiscal year 1995, the Secretary shall use information available as of October 2, 1995.

(III) In determining the amount described in subparagraph (C)(i)(IV) for any State for fiscal year 1995, the Secretary shall use information available as of February 28, 1996.

(IV) In determining the amount described in subparagraph (C)(i)(V) for any State for fiscal year 1995, the Secretary shall use information available as of October 5, 1995.

(E) Appropriation- Out of any money in the Treasury of the United States not otherwise appropriated, there are appropriated for fiscal years 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 such sums as are necessary for grants under this paragraph.

(2) Bonus to reward decrease in illegitimacy-

(A) In general- Each eligible State shall be entitled to receive from the Secretary a grant for each bonus year for which the State demonstrates a net decrease in out-of-wedlock births.

(B) Amount of grant-

(i) If 5 eligible states- If there are 5 eligible States for a bonus year, the amount of the grant shall be $20,000,000.

(ii) If fewer than 5 eligible states- If there are fewer than 5 eligible States for a bonus year, the amount of the grant shall be $25,000,000.

(C) Definitions- As used in this paragraph:

(i) Eligible state-

(I) In general - The term `eligible State' means a State that the Secretary determines meets the following requirements:

(aa) The State demonstrates that the number of out-of-wedlock births that occurred in the State during the most recent 2-year period for which such information is available decreased as compared to the number of such births that occurred during the previous 2-year period, and the magnitude of the decrease for the State for the period is not exceeded by the magnitude of the corresponding decrease for 5 or more other States for the period.

(bb) The rate of induced pregnancy terminations in the State for the fiscal year is less than the rate of induced pregnancy terminations in the State for fiscal year 1995.

(II) Disregard of changes in data due to changed reporting methods- In making the determination required by subclause (I), the Secretary shall disregard--

(aa) any difference between the number of out-of-wedlock births that occurred in a State for a fiscal year and the number of out-of-wedlock births that occurred in a State for fiscal year 1995 which is attributable to a change in State methods of reporting data used to calculate the number of out-of-wedlock births; and

(bb) any difference between the rate of induced pregnancy terminations in a State for a fiscal year and such rate for fiscal year 1995 which is attributable to a change in State methods of reporting data used to calculate such rate.

(ii) Bonus year- The term `bonus year' means fiscal years 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002.

(D) Appropriation- Out of any money in the Treasury of the United States not otherwise appropriated, there are appropriated for fiscal years 1999 through 2002, such sums as are necessary for grants under this paragraph.

(3) Supplemental grant for population increases in certain states-

(A) In general- Each qualifying State shall, subject to subparagraph (F), be entitled to receive from the Secretary--

(i) for fiscal year 1998 a grant in an amount equal to 2.5 percent of the total amount required to be paid to the State under former section 403 (as in effect during fiscal year 1994) for fiscal year 1994; and

(ii) for each of fiscal years 1999, 2000, and 2001, a grant in an amount equal to the sum of--

(I) the amount (if any) required to be paid to the State under this paragraph for the immediately preceding fiscal year; and

(II) 2.5 percent of the sum of--

(aa) the total amount required to be paid to the State under former section 403 (as in effect during fiscal year 1994) for fiscal year 1994; and

(bb) the amount (if any) required to be paid to the State under this paragraph for the fiscal year preceding the fiscal year for which the grant is to be made.

(B) Preservation of grant without increases for states failing to remain qualifying states- Each State that is not a qualifying State for a fiscal year specified in subparagraph (A)(ii) but was a qualifying State for a prior fiscal year shall, subject to subparagraph (F), be entitled to receive from the Secretary for the specified fiscal year, a grant in an amount equal to the amount required to be paid to the State under this paragraph for the most recent fiscal year for which the State was a qualifying State.

(C) Qualifying state-

(i) In general- For purposes of this paragraph, a State is a qualifying State for a fiscal year if--

(I) the level of welfare spending per poor person by the State for the immediately preceding fiscal year is less than the national average level of State welfare spending per poor person for such preceding fiscal year; and

(II) the population growth rate of the State (as determined by the Bureau of the Census) for the most recent fiscal year for which information is available exceeds the average population growth rate for all States (as so determined) for such most recent fiscal year.

(ii) State must qualify in fiscal year 1997- Notwithstanding clause (i), a State shall not be a qualifying State for any fiscal year after 1998 by reason of clause (i) if the State is not a qualifying State for fiscal year 1998 by reason of clause (i).

(iii) Certain states deemed qualifying states- For purposes of this paragraph, a State is deemed to be a qualifying State for fiscal years 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 if--

(I) the level of welfare spending per poor person by the State for fiscal year 1994 is less than 35 percent of the national average level of State welfare spending per poor person for fiscal year 1994; or

(II) the population of the State increased by more than 10 percent from April 1, 1990 to July 1, 1994, according to the population estimates in publication CB94-204 of the Bureau of the Census.

(D) Definitions- As used in this paragraph:

(i) Level of welfare spending per poor person- The term `level of State welfare spending per poor person' means, with respect to a State and a fiscal year--

(I) the sum of--

(aa) the total amount required to be paid to the State under former section 403 (as in effect during fiscal year 1994) for fiscal year 1994; and

(bb) the amount (if any) paid to the State under this paragraph for the immediately preceding fiscal year; divided by

(II) the number of individuals, according to the 1990 decennial census, who were residents of the State and whose income was below the poverty line.

(ii) National average level of state welfare spending per poor person- The term `national average level of State welfare spending per poor person' means, with respect to a fiscal year, an amount equal to--

(I) the total amount required to be paid to the States under former section 403 (as in effect during fiscal year 1994) for fiscal year 1994; divided by

(II) the number of individuals, according to the 1990 decennial census, who were residents of any State and whose income was below the poverty line.

(iii) State- The term `State' means each of the 50 States of the United States and the District of Columbia.

(E) Appropriation- Out of any money in the Treasury of the United States not otherwise appropriated, there are appropriated for fiscal years 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 such sums as are necessary for grants under this paragraph, in a total amount not to exceed $800,000,000.

(F) Grants reduced pro rata if insufficient appropriations- If the amount appropriated pursuant to this paragraph for a fiscal year is less than the total amount of payments otherwise required to be made under this paragraph for the fiscal year, then the amount otherwise payable to any State for the fiscal year under this paragraph shall be reduced by a percentage equal to the amount so appropriated divided by such total amount.

(G) Budget Scoring- Notwithstanding section 257(b)(2) of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, the baseline shall assume that no grant shall be made under this paragraph after fiscal year 2001.

(4) Bonus to reward high performance states-

(A) In general- The Secretary shall make a grant pursuant to this paragraph to each State for each bonus year for which the State is a high performing State.

(B) Amount of grant-

(i) In general- Subject to clause (ii) of this subparagraph, the Secretary shall determine the amount of the grant payable under this paragraph to a high performing State for a bonus year, which shall be based on the score assigned to the State under subparagraph (D)(i) for the fiscal year that immediately precedes the bonus year.

(ii) Limitation- The amount payable to a State under this paragraph for a bonus year shall not exceed 5 percent of the State family assistance grant.

(C) Formula for measuring state performance- Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, the Secretary, in consultation with the National Governors' Association and the American Public Welfare Association, shall develop a formula for measuring State performance in operating the State program funded under this part so as to achieve the goals set forth in section 401(a).

(D) Scoring of state performance; setting of performance thresholds- For each bonus year, the Secretary shall--

(i) use the formula developed under subparagraph (C) to assign a score to each eligible State for the fiscal year that immediately precedes the bonus year; and

(ii) prescribe a performance threshold in such a manner so as to ensure that--

(I) the average annual total amount of grants to be made under this paragraph for each bonus year equals $200,000,000; and

(II) the total amount of grants to be made under this paragraph for all bonus years equals $1,000,000,000.

(E) Definitions- As used in this paragraph:

(i) Bonus year- The term `bonus year' means fiscal years 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003.

(ii) High performing state- The term `high performing State' means, with respect to a bonus year, an eligible State whose score assigned pursuant to subparagraph (D)(i) for the fiscal year immediately preceding the bonus year equals or exceeds the performance threshold prescribed under subparagraph (D)(ii) for such preceding fiscal year.

(F) Appropriation- Out of any money in the Treasury of the United States not otherwise appropriated, there are

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