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Portrait of an African American child, Eatonville, Fla.; A Methodist church, Eatonville, Fla.; Portrait of a man holding a hat; Portrait of Rev. Haynes, Eatonville, Fla. June, 1935. Lomax collection of photographs depicting folk musicians, primarily in the southern United States and the Bahamas. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.

Identifying Complex Meanings.

1. Describe the themes that appear in the spiritual.
2. Identify the Biblical references.
3. What non-religious meanings might the spiritual have conveyed?



Sweet Chariot: The Story of the Spirituals, particularly the section on "Freedom" (Website maintained by The Spirituals Project at the University of Denver)

Negro Spirituals by Thomas Wentworth Higginson, from the Atlantic Monthly, June 1867

History of Negro Spirituals

Listen to the Kentucky State University Quartet sing:

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